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This study investigated the effect of drug and substance abuse on primary school pupils’ academic performance in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent of drug and substance abuse among pupils, establish whether peer influence led to drug and substance abuse among pupils and determine the influence of drug and substance abuse on pupils; academic performance. The study was guided by Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory of 1986. The research used descriptive survey design and stratified sampling technique. The sample size compared 200 pupils, 20 guiding and counseling teachers, 10 headteachers and 1 education officer. The study used questionnaires to gather quantitative data which was analyzed using SPSS package and was thereafter presented in frequencies tables and graphs. On the other hand, qualitative data was solicited through focus discussion groups and was processed through content analysis and summarized in thematic areas. The findings indicated that alcohol was the commonly abused substance. The majority (65%) of teacher counselors stated that drug and substance abuse and was most commonly available at 55% among pupils who abused drugs and alcohol. As a result, most of the pupils (58.8%) expected to attain between 201-250 marks at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in 2017. The prevalence of abuse of alcohol was at 55% followed by tobacco and bhang at 45% and 35% respectively. The results have further revealed that the causes of alcohol and drug abuse included peer pressure influence with (75%), idleness (65%), lack of parental guidance (40%), availability of drugs in schools (35%) and influence of extended family (25%).
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