Main Article Content
The purpose of the study was to highlight the factors associated with violence against women and girls and how they can benefit from therapy. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the factors associated with the occurrence of violence, determining the effectiveness of therapy in dealing with survivors of violence, exploring factors influencing or blocking effectiveness of therapy. A cross sectional research design was used in which questionnaires, an interviewing guide, focus group discussion and psychological assessment scale were used to collect study data. A sample of 75 women and girls was purposively selected from health facilities, counselling centres, chief camps, police station, NGOs and CBOs within Kibra Constituency. All respondents were females aged 18 years and above. The findings showed that all the respondents (100%) had been exposed to violence. The respondents who reported physical abuse were 30%, sexual abuse was reported by 10%, psychological and emotional abuse was reported by 16%, financial coercion was reported by 15%, neglect of children and duty by 13%, and verbal assault was reported by 16%. Further, the results showed that the most common victims of violence are expectant mothers and children who are under the care of irresponsible persons. The most reported people to perpetrate violence were cited to be men. The responses given by the respondents as factors that trigger violence are: Previous assaults (61%), cultural expectations (61%), alcohol abuse and other drugs (49%), poor communication skills (49%), poor problem solving skills (49%), perpetrator outstretched demands on resources (49%), infidelity(37%), unemployment (37%), peer pressure (37%), frustration emanating from blocked goals (24%), childlessness (24%) and personality traits (12%). Violence against women and girls impact negatively on their lives. The most common negative impact mentioned are depression by 75 respondents, children suffering cited by 65 respondents, family disintegration cited by 56 respondents, non-productivity, physical injury, and anxiety respectively cited by 46 respondents. The survivors of violence have knowledge of where they can access help in order to cope with the consequences of violence. Of the 75 respondents, 75 of them said that counselling is very helpful. Perseverance is another coping mechanism mentioned by 75 respondents. Separation and keeping quite are strategies mentioned by 65 respondents. Going to hospital is another support and help available mentioned by 56 respondents. The respondents who opted for spiritual intervention were 47 while those who opted to start a business for sustainability were 38. Those who preferred sharing with significant others as a coping mechanism were 28. Last but not least, 18 women indicated that support groups are helpful in dealing with violence. The study recommended that women and girls should be empowered financially and policies put into place to curb violence. The government and other stakeholders should partner to support women and girls to overcome violence in the society.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
Black, M.C. (2011). Intimate partner violence and adverse health consequences: implications for clinicians. Am J Lifestyle Med 5(5), 428-439.
Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M.R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National. Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Briere, J., & Jordan, C. E. (2004). Violence against women: outcome complexity and implications for assessment and treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 1252– 1276.
Briere, J. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Interpersonal Violence: The Prentice Series (IVPS), Newbury Park, SAGE Publications.
Campbell JC (2002) Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women II 359: 1331–1336.
Claassen, B. (2014). International Journal of Innovative Research and Development (IJIRD),Issue no 13.
Clarke, K. (2013). The Paradoxical Approach to Intimate Partner Violence in Finland, Academia.edu. (Retrieved on 2013/09/08). http://www.uam.es/personalpdi/economicas/gmail/ingles/publications.
Colledge, R. (2002). Mastering Counselling Theory. New York, MacMillan, Palgrave Master Series.
Craighead, A. (1994). Cognitive Behavioral Interventions. Washington DC, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
David Morawetz, http://www.padraigomorain.com/four-factors-that-influence-counselling- effectiveness.html assessed 13th July 2017
DSM-5, (2013). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, American Psychiatric Association's, (APA).
Dutton, M.A. (1992). Empowering and Healing the Battered Woman: A Model for Assessment and Intervention. Springer.
Dutton, D. G. (1995). Male abusiveness in intimate relationships. Clinical Psychology Review, 15, 567-581.
Dutton, D. G. (2007). The abusive personality: Violence and control in intimate relationships. New York: The Guilford Press.
Dutton, D. G., & Nicholls, T. L. (2005). The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and theory: Part 1—The conflict of theory and data. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 680-714.
Dutton, M. A. (1999). Multidimensional assessment of woman battering: Commentary on Smith, Smith, and Earp. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 195-198.
Dutton, M. A., & Goodman, L. A. (2005). Coercion in intimate partner violence: Toward a new conceptualization. Sex Roles, 52, 743-756.
Ellsberg, M. (2006). Violence against women and the Millennium Development Goals: Facilitating women’s access to support. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 2006; 94, 325—332.
Flury, M. N. E., & Riecher-Rossler, A. (2010). Domestic violence against women: Definitions, epidemiology, risk factors and consequences. Swiss Medical Weekly. Jacobson, and Winnicott, United States, Basic-Books Publishers.
Friedman, S., Loue, S., & Goldman H, E. (2011). Intimate partner violence victimization and nperpetration by Puerto Rican women with severe mental illnesses. Community Mental Health Journal, 47, 156–163.
Garcia-Moreno C, Henrica AFMJ, Mary E, Lori H, Charlotte HW (2006) Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. The Lancet 368: 1260–1269.
Gazmararian JA, Lazorick S, Spitz AM, Ballard TJ, Saltzman LE, et al. (1996). Prevalence of Violence Against Pregnant Women. JAMA 275: 1915–1920.
Gordon, M. (2000). Definitional issues in violence against women: Surveillance and research from a violence research perspective. Violence Against Women, 6, 747-783.
Heise, L., Ellsberg M., & Gottemoeller, M. (1999). Ending violence against women (Population Reports XXVII, No. 4, Series L, No. 11). Baltimore, MD: Population Information Program, John Hopkins University School of Public Health.
Hoagwood, A. (2011). Therapeutic Environment. Journal of Emotional and Behavioural Disorders.
Langhinrichse, R., & Jennifer, G., (2005). Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 20, 360–390
Lloyds, T.N. (1999). Max, W., Rice, D.P., Finkelstein, E. & Bardwell, R.A. (1999). The effects of male violence on female employment. Violence Against Women 5:370–392.
Jewkes, R. (2002). Intimate partner violence: Causes and prevention. Lancet, 359, 1423-1429.
Jewkes, R., Levin J., & Penna, L. (2002). Risk factors for domestic violence: Findings from a South African cross-sectional study. Social Science and Medicine, 55, 1603-1617.
Johnson, K. S., Jennifer, S.T., Ndetei, D.K., Michael, R S., Bartels, S.M., Mbwayo, A., David, R.& Lawry, L. (2014). A national Population-based Assessment of 2007- 2008 Election- related Violence in Kenya. Conflict. Vol. 8 Issue 1, p1-25. 25p.
Kishor, S. & Johnson, K. (2004). Profiling domestic violence— a multi-country study. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro.
Knaevelsrud, C., & Maaerke, N. (2011). Internet based treatment for PTSD reduces distress and facilitates the development of a strong therapeutic alliance: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Bio MedCentral Psychiatry 7:13, 4/17/07.
Kylee, T L., Howard, G. F., Roxanne A.S., & Louise, M.H. (2012). Domestic Violence and Mental Health. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Kelsey, H., (2011). The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198 (3) 169-170; DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.083758.
Lehrner, A. L., (2011). A Mixed-Method Analysis of Women's Intimate Partner Violence. Urbana, Illinois
Makayoto LA, Omolo J, Kamweya AM, Harder VS, Mutai J (2012): Prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya. Maternal Child Health J 2012, 17:441-447.
Oram, S., Trevillion, K., Feder, G., & Howard, L. M.,(2013). Prevalence of experiences of Domestic Violence among psychiatric patients: systematic review. The British Journal of Psychiatry: 202, 94–99. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.109934
Schneider, E.M. (1990-1991). The Violence of Privacy, 23. Conn.L.Rev. 973.
Simukai Shamu, Naeemah Abrahams, Marleen Temmerman, Alfred Musekiwa, Christina Zarowsky (2011). A Systematic Review of African Studies on Intimate Partner Violence against Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Risk Factors: Editor: Virginia Vitzthum, Indiana University, United States of America.
Taillieu TL, Brownridge DA (2010). Violence against pregnant women: Prevalence, patterns, risk factors, theories, and directions for future research. Aggression and Violent Behavior 15: 14–35.
WHO (2005). WHO Multi-county study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women: Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. WHO Geneva. WHO (2000) Millenium Development Goals. http://wwwwhoint/topics/millennium_development_goals/about/en/indexhtml accessed 24 January 2011.
Zubairu Iliyasu, Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, PMB 3452, Kano, Nigeria Email: firstname.lastname@example.org