Regulation of Flipped Learning Activities in Programming

A Systematic Review

Authors

  • Anderson Cavalcante Gonçalves Federal University of Goiás https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4423-7531
  • Deller James Ferreira Federal University of Goiás
  • Dirson Santos de Campos Federal University of Goiás
  • Uyara Ferreira Silva Federal University of Goiás

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.vol9.iss8.3265

Keywords:

regulation, flipped learning, systematic review, programming

Abstract

Flipped Learning can contribute significantly to learning, however there is an under-utilization of conceptual structures of design in the flipped classroom, with regard to the incorporation of pedagogical methods to promote the activities to be performed by students. The pedagogical design of flipped classrooms needs to provide a model that details how to facilitate activities before, during and after classes. It is important to analyze the moment before the classroom, which involves self-regulation, during the classroom which involves processes related to interaction and collaboration and after the classroom, related to reflective processes.  Developing and conducting a systematic review can contribute to an analysis of the current state of research on teacher facilitation in relation to student regulation in flipped learning related to teaching programming. The systematic review was carried out to identify all the research available on self-regulation and co-regulation by students during flipped learning in programming courses. The objective of this research is to identify and analyze relevant research related to the regulation and co-regulation of flipped learning activities in the teaching of programming, and to understand how the self-regulation and co-regulation of students has been approached to engage in activities before the classroom. class, collaboration and problem solving during classes and reflections after class. After a analysis of the articles listed by the systematic review, important gaps in the literature can be observed, such as the lack of approach to the three phases of flipped learning, regulation and co-regulation and all dimensions of regulation. Nor is there a theoretical framework based on processes and strategies of self and co-regulation for teaching computer programming. Thus, the present systematic review has significant relevance and highlights the need for studies that involve all elements of flipped learning in the teaching of programming.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Anderson Cavalcante Gonçalves, Federal University of Goiás

Professor at the State University of Goiás. Doctoral Student in Computer Science at the Federal University of Goiás (UFG), Master in Computer Science at UFG, Specialist in Information Security at UFG, Graduated in Computer Networks at the State University of Goiás.

Deller James Ferreira, Federal University of Goiás

Professor at the Institute of Informatics of the Federal University of Goiás. Post-Doc from the University of Exeter, England. PhD in Education from the University of Brasília, Master in Systems and Computing from the Military Institute of Engineering, IME, Graduated in Mathematics from the Fluminense Federal University.

Dirson Santos de Campos, Federal University of Goiás

Professor at the Federal University of Goiás, Doctoral Student in Computer Science, Master in Computer Science.

Uyara Ferreira Silva, Federal University of Goiás

Professor at the Federal Institute of Goiás, Doctoral Student in Computer Science, Master in Computer Engineering.

References

AlJarrah, A., Thomas, M.K. & Shehab, M. Investigating temporal access in a flipped classroom: procrastination persists. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 15, 1, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-017-0083-9

Amira, Teimzit, Lamia, Mahmane, Hafid, Mohamed. Implementation and Evaluation of Flipped Algorithmic Class. Information and Communication Technology Education. Volume 15. 2019. pg.12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4018/IJICTE.2019010101

Akçayir, Gokçe, Akçayir, Murat. The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Computer e Education. Elsevier. Volume 126. 2018.pg 334-345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.07.021

Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day (pp. 120-190). Washington DC: International Society for Technology in Education.

Blanco, Angel Fidalgo, Nunez, Margarita Martinez, Gene, Oriol Borrás, Medina, Sanchez. Micro flip teaching ‒ An innovative model to promote the active involvement of students. Computer in Human Behavior. Elsevier. volume.73.2017.pg. 713-723. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.07.060

Brewer, R. Houling, S. Successful stories and conflicts: A literature review on the effectiveness of flipped learning in higher education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Wiley online Library. Volume 34. 2018.pg.409-416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12250

Bhat, Zahoor Ahmad and Bhat, Gh Jeelani, Flipped Classroom Method in Contemporary Teaching Learning Environment (2018). International Journal of Movement Education and Social Science, 7(2), 636-643, 2018.

Çakıroğlu, Ünal & Öztürk, Mücahit. (2017). Flipped Classroom with Problem Based Activities: Exploring Self-regulated Learning in a Programming Language Course. Educational Technology & Society.

Chen, Mey-Rong Alice, Hwang, Gwo-Jen, Chang, Yu-ying. A reflective thinking‐promoting approach to enhancing graduate students' flipped learning engagement, participation behaviors, reflective thinking and project learning outcomes. British Journal Educational Technology. Volume 50.2019.pg. 2288-2307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12823

Chen, Hsiu-Ling, Chang, Chiung-Yun. Integrating the SOP2 Model into the Flipped Classroom to Foster Cognitive Presence and Learning Achievements. Computer Science. Semantic Scholar. 2017.

Chiang, T. (2017). Analysis of learning behavior in a flipped programing classroom adopting problem-solving strategies. Interactive Learning Environments. V. 25. Pg, 189-202. Taylor e Francis Online. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2016.1276084

Durak, Hatice Yuldiz. Modeling Different Variables in Learning Basic Concepts of Programming in Flipped Classrooms. Journal of Education Computing Research. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633119827956

DeLozier, S. J., & Rhodes, M. G. (2017). Flipped classrooms: A review of key ideas and recommendations for practice. Educational Psychology Review, 29(1), 141–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9356-9

Dooly, Melinda, Sadler, Randall.“If you don’t improve, what’s the point?” Investigating the impact of a “flipped” online exchange in teacher education. Published online by Cambridge University Press.Volume.32. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344019000107

Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. London: Routledge/Falmer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203166093

Hadwin, Allyson F, Bakhtiar, Aisha, Miller, Mariel. Challenges in Online Collaboration: Effects of Scripting Shared Task Perceptions. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Volume 3. 2018. pg. 301-329. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-018-9279-9

Hao, Yungwei. (2016). Exploring undergraduates' perspectives and flipped learning readiness in their flipped classrooms. Computers in Human Behavior. 59. 82-92. Elsevier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.032

Hao, Yungwei, LEE, Kathryn S. Teaching in flipped classrooms: Exploring pre-service teachers' concerns. Computer in Human Behavior. Elsevier. volume 57. 2016.pg.250-260. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.022

Hayashi, Y. & Fukamachi, K.-I & Komatsugawa, H.. (2015). Evaluation of a flipped classroom & analysis of students' learning situation in a computer-programming course. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. 272. 120-127.

Heimbuch, S., Ollesch, L. & Bodemer, D. Comparing effects of two collaboration scripts on learning activities for wiki-based environments. Intern. J. Comput.-Support. Collab. Learn 13, 331–357 (2018). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-018-9283-0

Herala, Antti, Vanhala, Erno, Knautas, Antii, Iconen, Jouni. Teaching programming with flipped classroom method: a study from two programming courses. Digital Library. 2015.pg.165-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2828959.2828983

Hiremath, Shraddha & Iyer, Nalini & Kotabagi, Sujata & Mohanachandran, Poornima & Hangal, R.V & Patil, Nikita & Eligar, Sanjay & Patil, Jyoti. (2020). Enhanced Learning Experience by Comparative Investigation of Pedagogical Approach: Flipped Classroom. Procedia Computer Science. 172. 22-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.05.003

Hsu, Wen-Chun, Lin, Hao-Chiang. Impact of Applying WebGL Technology to Develop a Web Digital Game-Based Learning System for Computer Programming Course in Flipped Classroom. IEEExplore. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EITT.2016.20

Isomottonen, Ville, Torronen, Ville. Flipping and Blending—An Action Research Project on Improving a Functional Programming Course. ACM Transaction on Computing Education.volume 17.2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2934697

Jdaitawi, Maleki M. The Effect of Flipped Classroom Strategy on Students Learning Outcomes.International Journal of Instruction.2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2019.12340a

Jenkins, K. A., Charteris, J., Bannister-Tyrrell, M., & Jones, M. (2017). Emotions and Casual Teachers: Implications of the Precariat for Initial Teacher Education.. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 42(12). DOI: https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2017v42n12.10

Jenkins, Martin & Bokosmaty, Rena & Brown, Melanie & Browne, Chris & Gao, Qi & Hanson, Julie & Kupatadze, Ketevan. (2017). Enhancing the Design and Analysis of Flipped Learning Strategies. Teaching & Learning Inquiry: The ISSOTL Journal. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20343/5.1.7

Karakas, Fahri and Manisaligil, Alperen and Sarigollu, Emine, Management Learning at the Speed of Life: Designing Reflective, Creative, and Collaborative Spaces for Millenials (November 15, 2014). The International Journal of Management Education, 13 (3), 2015, pp. 237–248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2015.07.001

Kim, M. K., Kim, S. M., Khera, O., & Getman, J. (2014). The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: an exploration of design principles. The Internet and Higher Education, 22, 37-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2014.04.003

Kitchenham, B. Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering, Technical Report – Department of Computer Science, University of Durham, Durham, 2007.

Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling.Four Pedagogical Dimensions for Understanding Flipped Classroom Practices in Higher Education: A Systematic Review. Educational Science: Theory e Practice.vol.19.n.4. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2019.4.002

Lee, N, Lim, Y, Kim, Y. Gender differences in the association of smartphone addiction with food group consumption among Korean adolescents. Pubmed. National Library of Medicine. 2017.

Lin, Su Mei. The Practice Research of Flipped-Classroom Combined Mobile Action Learning in International Marketing Management Course. ICEEL 2019: Proceedings of the International Conference on Education and E-Learning. pg. 73-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3371647.3372206

Lin, Hui-Chen, Hawang, Gwo-Jen. Research trends of flipped classroom studies for medical courses: a review of journal publications from 2008 to 2017 based on the technology-enhanced learning model. Interactive Learning Environments. Volume 27. 2019.pg. 1011-1027. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2018.1467462

Lin, Li-Chun & Hung, I-Chun & Kinshuk, Dr & Chen, Nian-Shing. (2019). The impact of student engagement on learning outcomes in a cyber-flipped course. Educational Technology Research and Development. 67. 1573-1591. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09698-9

Lo, Chung Kwan. The impact of flipped classrooms on student achievement in engineering education: A meta‐analysis of 10 years of research. The Research Journal for Engineering Homepage. Volume 108. pg.523-546, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jee.20293

Lo, Chung Kwan & Hew, Khe. (2017). A critical review of flipped classroom challenges in K-12 education: Possible solutions and recommendations for future research. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. 12. 1-22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-016-0044-2

Lobczowiski, Nikki G, Allen, Elizabeth M. Firetto, Carla M. Greene, Jeffrey A. MURPHY, P Karen. An exploration of social regulation of learning during scientific argumentation discourse. Contemporary Educational Psychology. SienceDirect. volume.63. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101925

Lundin, M., Bergviken Rensfeldt, A., Hillman, T. et al. Higher education dominance and siloed knowledge: a systematic review of flipped classroom research. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 15, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-018-0101-6

Luo, Z., O’Steen, B. & Brown, C. Flipped learning wheel (FLW): a framework and process design for flipped L2 writing classes. Smart Learn. Environ. 7, 10 (2020). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00121-y

Luo, George, Henry, Michael L. Mc, Letterio, Jhon J. Estimating the prevalence and risk of COVID-19 among international travelers and evacuees of Wuhan through modeling and case reports. Pollos One Collection Social Psychiatry. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234955

Mccord, Rachel, Jeldes, Isaac. Engaging non-majors in MATLAB programming through a flipped classroom approach. Computer Science Education. Volume. 29. 2019. pg, 313-334. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08993408.2019.1599645

Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6(7). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097

Naidoo, Kara, Kirch, Suzan A. Candidates Use a New Teacher Development Process, Transformative Reflection, to Identify and Address Teaching and Learning Problems in Their Work With Children. Journal of Teacher Education.2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487116653659

Näykki, P., Isohätälä, J., Järvelä, S. et al. Facilitating socio-cognitive and socio-emotional monitoring in collaborative learning with a regulation macro script – an exploratory study. Intern. J. Comput.-Support. Collab. Learn 12, 251–279 (2017). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-017-9259-5

O´flaheart, Jacqueline, Phillips, Craig. The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education.Elsevier.Volume 25, April 2015, Pages 85-95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002

Ökmen, Burcu & Kılıç, Abdurrahman. (2020). The Effect of Layered Flipped Learning Model on Students' Attitudes and Self- Regulation Skills. Ijres. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46328/ijres.v6i3.957

Ozyurt, Hacer, Ozyurt, Ozcan. Analyzing the effects of adapted flipped classroom approach on computer programming success, attitude toward programming, and programming self‐efficacy. Computer Application in Engineering Education. Wiley Online Library. volume 26. 2018.pg. 2036-2046. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.21973

Pedrosa, Daniela & Cravino, José & Morgado, Leonel & Barreira, Carlos. (2019). Co-regulated Learning in Computer Programming: Students Co-reflection About Learning Strategies Adopted During an Assignment. Technology and Innovation in Learning, Teaching and Education pp 13-28. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20954-4_2

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (p. 451–502). Academic Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50043-3

Rajaram, K. (2019). Flipped classroom: Scaffolding support system with real time learning interventions. Asian Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9(1), 30–58.

Rosiene, Carolin Pe, ROSIENE, Joel A. Flipping a programming course: The good, the bad, and the ugly. IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference.volume. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2015.7344151

Schwarzenber, Pablo, Navón, Jaime.Supporting goal setting in flipped classes. Interactive Learning environment. volume 23.2020.pg. 671-684. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1707691

Schraw, Gregory & Crippen, Kent & Hartley, Kendall. (2006). Promoting Self-Regulation in Science Education: Metacognition as Part of a Broader Perspective on Learning. Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-005-3917-8

Sletten, S. (2017). Investigating Flipped Learning: Student Self-Regulated Learning, Perceptions, and Achievement in an Introductory Biology Course. Jounal of Science Education and Technology. V. 26. Pg, 347-358. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9683-8

Strayer, J. F. (2012). How Learning in an Inverted Classroom Influences Cooperation, Innovation and Task Orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15, 171-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-012-9108-4

Setren, Elizabeth, Kyle Greenberg, Oliver Moore, and Michael Yankovich. (2019). Effects of the Flipped Classroom: Evidence from a Randomized Trial. (EdWorkingPaper: 19-113). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University.

Sohrabi, Babak & Iraj, Hamideh. (2016). Implementing flipped classroom using digital media: A comparison of two demographically different groups' perceptions. Computers in Human Behavior. Elsevier. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.02.056

Thonkgoo, Kritawa. Integrating inquiry learning and knowledge management into a flipped classroom to improve students’ web programming performance in higher education. Knowledge Management e E-Learning: An International Journal. volume 3. 2019.

Wolff, Lutz-Christian & Chan, Jenny. (2016). Flipped Classrooms for Legal Education. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0479-7

Yamashita, Kaory, Yasueda, Hidetoshi. Project-based learning in out-of-class activities: flipped learning based on communities created in real and virtual spaces.SienceDirect. volume 112. 2017.pg.1044-1053. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.08.108

Yilmaz, O. (2017). Learner centered classroom in science instruction: Providing feedback with technology integration. International Journal of Research in Education and Science (IJRES), 3(2), 604-613. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21890/ijres.328091

Ye, Xing-Dong, Chang, Yi-Hsin, Lai, Chiu-Lin. An interactive problem-posing guiding approach to bridging and facilitating pre- and in-class learning for flipped classrooms. Interactive Learning environments. Volume 27. 2018.pg. 1075-7092. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2018.1495651

Zamorano, Luiz R. Murillo, Sànchez, José Àngel López, Caballero, Ana Luiza Godói. How the flipped classroom affects knowledge, skills, and engagement in higher education: Effects on students' satisfaction. Computer e Education. Elsevier. Volume 141. 2019. pg. 103-608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103608

Zheng, Lanqin & Bhagat, Kaushal & Zhen, Yuanyi & Zhang, Xuan. (2020). The Effectiveness of the Flipped Classroom on Students’ Learning Achievement and Learning Motivation: A Meta-Analysis. Educational Technology & Society. 23. 1-15.

Downloads

Published

01-08-2021

How to Cite

Gonçalves, A. C., D. J. Ferreira, D. S. de Campos, and U. F. Silva. “Regulation of Flipped Learning Activities in Programming: A Systematic Review”. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, vol. 9, no. 8, Aug. 2021, pp. 71-92, doi:10.31686/ijier.vol9.iss8.3265.
Received 2021-06-21
Accepted 2021-07-13
Published 2021-08-01