Differentiated Education Supervision Approaches in Schools through the Lens of Teachers

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Norma Ghamrawi
Najah Ghamrawi
Tarek Shal


The purpose of this study was to examine the predominant approaches of education supervision in a randomly selected sample of schools in Beirut, Lebanon according to Glickman et al.’s (1998) differentiated model. For this purpose, 290 teachers (N1= 290) from 29 non-free private schools in Beirut (N2= 29) completed a survey. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that: (1) teachers were not satisfied in schools with the education supervision behaviors in their schools; (2) the predominant approaches of education supervision were directive control, followed by directive informational, collaborative and least were non-directive behaviors; and (3) supervisory approaches were not differentiated in schools. Implications and limitations of the study and suggested.


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Ghamrawi, N., Ghamrawi, N., & Shal, T. (2019). Differentiated Education Supervision Approaches in Schools through the Lens of Teachers. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 7(11), 1341-1357. https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.Vol7.Iss11.2011
Author Biographies

Norma Ghamrawi, Lebanese University

Full Professor of Education- Faculty of Education

Najah Ghamrawi, Lebanese University

Assistant Professor of Education- Faculty of Education

Tarek Shal, Lebanese University

Assistant Professor of Education- Faculty of Education


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