Main Article Content
The purpose of this study was to examine the predominant approaches of education supervision in a randomly selected sample of schools in Beirut, Lebanon according to Glickman et al.’s (1998) differentiated model. For this purpose, 290 teachers (N1= 290) from 29 non-free private schools in Beirut (N2= 29) completed a survey. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that: (1) teachers were not satisfied in schools with the education supervision behaviors in their schools; (2) the predominant approaches of education supervision were directive control, followed by directive informational, collaborative and least were non-directive behaviors; and (3) supervisory approaches were not differentiated in schools. Implications and limitations of the study and suggested.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
Bakkum, L., Ko, J., Sammos, P., & (2014). Effective Teaching. Education Development Trust. Available: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/our-research-and-insights/research/effective-teaching
Campbell, P. F., & Malkus, N. N. (2011). The impact of elementary mathematics coaches on student achievement. The Elementary School Journal 111(3), 430–454; May, H., Sirinides, P., Gray, A., & Goldsworthy, H. (2016). Reading Recovery: An Evaluation of the Four-Year i3 Scale-Up. Philadelphia, PA: Consortium for Policy Research in Education. Available: http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi?article=1089&context=cpre_researchreports
Chien-Chin, C. (2018). Facilitation of teachers’ professional development through principals’ instructional supervision and teachers’ knowledge-management behaviors. In Weinberger, Y. & Libman, Z. (Eds), Contemporary Pedagogies in Teacher Education and Development (694-712). IntechOpen. Available: https://www.intechopen.com/books/contemporary-pedagogies-in-teacher-education-and-development/
Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R.C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Dallas, TX: NSDC.
DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2006). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
Gallagher, H. A., Woodworth, K. R., & Arshan, N. L. (2017). Impact of the National Writing Project’s College-Ready Writers Program in high-need rural districts. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, online; Johnson, C. C., & Fargo, J. D. (2010). Urban school reform enabled by transformative professional development: Impact on teacher change and student learning of science. Urban Education, 45(1), 4–29.
Ghamrawi, N. (2010). No teacher left behind: Subject leadership that promotes teacher leadership. British Educational Leadership Management & Administration Journal, 38(3), 304-320.
Ghamrawi, N. (2011). Trust me your school can be better: A message from teachers to principals. British Educational Leadership Management & Administration Journal, 39(3), 333-348.
Ghamrawi, N. (2013a). Teachers helping teachers: Professional development model that promotes teacher leadership. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 6(4), 587-610.
Ghamrawi, N. (2013b). Never underestimate the power of the sandwiched: Middle leaders and school culture. Basic Research Journal of Education Research and Review, 2(2), 29-41.
Ghamrawi, N., Ghamrawi, N.A.R., & Shal, T. (2017). Lebanese public schools: 20th or 21st century schools? An investigation into teachers’ instructional practices. Open Journal of Leadership, 6, 1-20.
Shal, T., El Kibbi, I., Ghamrawi, N.A.R., Ghamrawi, N. (2018). Principals’ Differentiated Learning through Social Media: Practices & Obstacles. International Journal of Education & Applied Research, Vol. 8(1), pp.19-29.
Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P. & Ross-Gordon, J.M., (2009). The basic guide to supervision and instructional leadership: (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Glickman, C. D.Gordan, S. P.Ross-Gordan, J. M.20149th ed.Saddle Creek, NJPearson
Hixson, N., Ravitz, J., & Whisman, A. (2012) . Extended Professional Development in Project-Based Learning: Impacts on 21st Century Teaching and Student Achievement. Charleston, WV: West Virginia Department of Education.
Ingersoll, R.M. and Collins, G.J. (2018). The Status of Teaching as a Profession. In J. Ballantine, J. Spade, and J. Stuber (Eds.), Schools and Society: A Sociological Approach to Education (p. 199-213) 6th Ed. CA: Pine Forge Press/Sage Publications.
Lieberman, A., & Wood, D. (2002). From network learning to classroom teaching. Journal of Educational Change, 3, 315–337; McDonald, J. P., Buchanan, J., & Sterling, R. (2004). The national writing project: Scaling up and scaling down. Expanding the reach of education reforms: Perspectives from leaders in the scale-up of educational interventions, 81–106.
Marzano, R., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective Supervision: Supporting the Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Nolan, J.F. & Hoover, L.A. (2008). Teacher supervision and evaluation, Theory into practice. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
OECD(2019). Education at a Glance. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1787/19991487
Sergiovanni, T. J., & Starratt, R. J. (1993). Supervision: A redefinition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wanzare, Z., & da Costa, J.L. (2000). Supervision and staff development: Overview of the literature. NASSP Bulletin, 84(6), 47-54.