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Environmental education with a focus on biodiversity values can be an instrument for sensitization, reflection, construction of a critical vision and behavior change. The knowledge of local Caatinga biodiversity is fundamental for the valorization and conservation of its the native elements. This work aimed to present a diagnosis about the the knowledge of school students on the topics environment, Caatinga biodiversity and ecosystem services in Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. We used qualitative and quantitative methods, through bibliographic research, in which the conceptual and normative aspects were addressed through books, articles, journals and others, as well as through questionnaires for students. Was verified that students recognize Caatinga biodiversity especially by plants as cactus species. They presented some knowledge about the research topics, but many of the concepts were confuse. This confusion in concepts may be due to the scarcity of information related to Caatinga biodiversity in the school context, and highlight the importance of present the studied topics as a way of encouraging conservationist actions and behavioral changes.
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