Expert System Development for the Prevention of Hoof Pathologies Applied to the Intensive Swine Production

Main Article Content

Mario Mollo Neto


Claw lameness can be associated with biomechanical factors caused by imbalances of the pressure distribution under the hooves when swine are confined in modern facilities with hard concrete flooring. Comparing hoof pressure distribution data of swine boars walking over two different types of floors (standard concrete vs. 3mm rubber mattress) in previous research, it was found a great advantage favoring the rubber mat flooring showing that it was capable of reducing pressures under the claws as the pressure became more evenly distributed under this treatment resulting in balanced weight-bearing surfaces. The objective of this study was to develop an expert system based on Fuzzy logic algorithm for the prevention of hoof pathologies applied to the intensive swine production by estimating occurrence of claw lesions based on the association of knowledge gathered on pressure distribution from previous research as well as the influences of nutrition, friction coefficients found on different types of available flooring, hoof sizes and animal weight on the welfare of the swine’s locomotory system. The data were correlated initially using Matlab® platform associating expert’s knowledge and literature through a knowledge system that weights the variables according to their impact on claw health. The final user interface was coded using Microsoft Visual Studio Rapid Application Development tool and the resulting system was validated in several different laboratory scenarios and its performance was considered to be satisfactory according to findings in the literature. The expert system was coded and the authors concluded that the system could be a great contribution and advance in the swine’s industry, nonetheless, its performance still requires field testing for fine adjustments which should be encouraged to be carried out in further researches.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mollo Neto, M. (2019). Expert System Development for the Prevention of Hoof Pathologies Applied to the Intensive Swine Production. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 7(10), 56-69.
Author Biography

Mario Mollo Neto, São Paulo State University (UNESP)

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Tupã/SP Brazil


[1] ABAEI, G.; SELAMAT, A.; DALLAL, J. A. A fuzzy logic expert system to predict module fault proneness using unlabeled data. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, 2018.

[2] AMENDOLA, M.; CASTANHO, M.J.; NAAS, I.; SOUZA, A.L. Análise matemática de condições de conforto térmico para avicultura usando a teoria dos conjuntos Fuzzy. Biomatemática Brasil, Campinas, v.14, n.1, p.87-92, 2004.

[3] BRYANT, K. L., E. T. KORNEGAY, J. W. KNIGHT, H. P. VEIT AND D. R. NOTTER. 1985. Supplemental Biotin for Swine. III. Influence of Supplementation to Corn- and Wheat-Based Diets on the Incidence and Severity of Toe Lesions, Hair and Skin Characteristics and Structural Soundness of Sows Housed in Confinement during Four Parities. J Anim Sci. 60:154-162.

[4] CARVALHO, V. R. C., NAAS, I. A., MOLLO NETO, M., SOUZA, S. R. L.. 2009. Measurement of pig claw pressure distribution. Biosystems Engineering, v. 103, p. 357-363.

[5] CARVALHO, V.; BUCKLIN, R. A.; SHEARER, J. K.; SHEARER, L.; NAAS, I. A.; MOLLO M.; SOUZA, S.; MASSAFERA Jr., V. Dairy Cattle Linear, and Angular Kinematics during the Stance Phase. E-journal. International Commission of Agricultural Engineering, v. 9, p. 1-10, 2007

[6] CARVALHO, V.; BUCKLIN, R. A.; SHEARER, J. K.; SHEARER, L.; NAAS, I. A.; MOLLO M.; SOUZA, S.; MASSAFERA Jr., V. Effects of Trimming on Dairy Cattle Hoof Weight Bearing Surfaces and Pressure Distributions. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, USP - São Paulo, v. 43, n. 4, p. 518-525, 2006

[7] DE BELIE, N. & E. ROMBAUT. 2003. Characterization of Claw–floor Contact Pressures for Standing Cattle and the Dependency on Concrete Roughness. Biosystems Engineering, 85(3): 339-346.

[8] DE JONG, M.F. & SYSTSEMA, J. R. 1983. Field experience with d-biotin supplementation to gilt and sow feeds. Vet Q. ;5(2):58-67.

[9] DE MOL, RUDI. (2001). Automated Detection of Oestrus And Mastitis In Dairy Cows. Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde. 126. 99-103.

[10] DONALD, C.; DUNCAN, R.; AND THAKORE, S. Predictors of the need for rapid sequence intubation in the poisoned patient with reduced Glasgow coma score. Emerg Med J 2009;26:510-512 DOI:10.1136/emj.2008.064998

[11] ENTING, J. & HUIRNE, R.B.M. & DIJKHUIZEN, A.A. & TIELEN, M.J.M. (2000). ZOVEX, A Knowledge-Integrated Computer System To Support Health Management On Pig Farms. Computers And Electronics In Agriculture 26 (2000). 26. 10.1016/S0168-1699(99)00067-8.

[12] HOGEVEEN, H.; NOORDHUIZEN-STRASSEN, E.N.; TEPP, D.M.; KREMER, W.D.; VLIET, J.H.; BRAND, A. Acknowledge-based system for diagnosis of mastitis problems at the herd level. 1. Concepts J. Dairy Sci., 78 (1995), pp. 1430-1440.

[13] HEDGES, J., BLOWEY, R. W., PACKINGTON, A. J., O’CALLAGHAN, C. J., AND L. E. GREEN. 2001. A Longitudinal Field Trial of the Effect of Biotin on Lameness in Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1969–1975

[14] KEMPSON, S.A.; CURRIE, R.J.; JOHNSTON, A.M. (1989). Influence of Biotin supplementation on pig claw horn: A scanning electron microscope study. Vet. Rec. 124:37.

[15] MAMDANI, E.H.; ASSILIAN, S. An experiment in linguistic synthesis with a Fuzzy logic controller, Int.J. Man-Mach. Stud. 7(1) (1975) 1.

[16] MARTELLI, G.; SARDI, L.; PARISINI, P.; BADIANI, A.; PARAZZA, P.; MORDENTI, A. The effects of a dietary supplement of biotin on Italian heavy pigs' (160 kg) growth, slaughtering parameters, meat quality and the sensory properties of cured hams. Livestock Production Science, v.93 n.2, p.117-124, 2005.

[17] OJHA, V.; ABRAHAM, A.; SNÁŠELE, V. Heuristic design of fuzzy inference systems: A review of three decades of research. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence. v.85, p.845-864, 2019.

[18] PENNY, R.H.C.; OSBORNE, A.D.; WRIGHT, A.I. The causes and incidence of lameness in-store and adult pigs. Veterinary Records. v.75, p.1225-1235. 1965.

[19] PENNY, RH, CAMERON, R. D., JOHNSON, S., KENYON, P. J., SMITH, H. A, BELL, A. W, COLE, J. P, TAYLOR, J. 1980. Footrot of pigs: the influence of biotin supplementation on foot lesions in sows. Vet Rec.; 107(15):350-1.

[20] RAVEN, E.T. 1989. Cattle Foot Care and Claw Trimming. Farming Press – UK. 19-33

[21] ROYCHOWDHURY, ANISH & PRATIHAR, DILIP & BOSE, NILAV & SANKARANARAYANAN, K. & SUDHAHAR, N. (2004). Diagnosis of the diseases - Using a GA-Fuzzy approach. Inf. Sci. 162. 105-120. 10.1016/j.ins.2004.03.004.

[22] RUSHEN, J. AND A. M. DE PASSILLE´. 2006. Effects of Roughness and Compressibility of Flooring on Cow Locomotion. J. Dairy Sci. 89:2965–2972

[23] SUHARJITO; DIANA; YULYANTO; A. NUGROHO. Mobile Expert System Using Fuzzy Tsukamoto for Diagnosing Cattle Disease. Procedia Computer Science, v.116, p.27-36, 2017.

[24] VAN DER TOL, P. P. J., J. H. M. METZ, AND E. N. NOORDHUIZEN-STASSEN. 2002. The pressure distribution under the bovine claws during square standing on a flat substrate. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 1476-1481

[25] VÁSQUEZ, R. P.; AGUILAR-LASSERRE, A. A.; LÓPEZ-SEGURA, M. V.; RIVERO, L. C.; RODRÍGUEZ-DURAN, A. A.; ROJAS-LUNA, M. A. Expert System Based On A Fuzzy Logic Model For The Analysis Of The Sustainable Livestock Production Dynamic System. Computers And Electronics In Agriculture. V.161, P.104-120, 2019.

[26] WARREN, JAMES & BELIAKOV, GLEB & VAN DER ZWAAG, BEREND Jan. (2000). Fuzzy Logic in Clinical Practice Decision Support Systems. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. 5. 10.1109/HICSS.2000.926789.

[27] WATKINS, K. L., L. L. SOUTHERN AND J. E. MILLER. Effect of dietary biotin supplementation on sow reproductive performance and soundness and pig growth and mortality. 1991. J Anim Sci. 69:201-206.

[28] ZADEH, L. A. From circuit theory to systems theory. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineering, 1962, 50, 856–865.

[29] ZADEH, L. A. Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 1965a, 8:338-353.

[30] ZADEH, L. A. The concept of a linguistic variable and its application to approximate reasoning. Information Sciences, 1965b, 1-3, 199–249 (See also pages. 301-357, 43-80).

[31] ZADEH, L. A., FROM, L. A. Computing with Numbers to Computing with Words—From Manipulation of Measurements to Manipulation of Perceptions. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 1999, 45, 105–118.

Most read articles by the same author(s)