Main Article Content
A sixth grade student’s ability to memorize multiplication facts was investigated. The overall goal of the work was to improve the student’s understanding and knowledge of basic multiplication facts (0-10) for the zeroes, to fives. There were 66 facts, for example 4 x 6 = 24. The student had been taught multiplication concepts in her elementary years and she did have a basic understand of the meaning of multiplication facts as shown on a pretest. She understood that 4 x 6 is a representation of four sets of six or 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = 24. The student’s previous knowledge and history were used to develop an individualized education plan to help her have a better understanding of the concept and to memorize basic multiplication facts. The interventions were concrete, semi-concrete, and abstract models of instruction. A pretest was given prior to the sessions and a posttest was given after the sessions. The number of sessions was determined based on the student’s ability to learn the concepts. The student was successful at memorizing multiplication facts for the zeroes through fives. The next study will be to help the student achieve automaticity of the multiplication facts.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, NCTM, Reston, Va, 2000, p. 148, 153.
 Common Core State Standards Initiative, Preparing America’s Students for College & Career, Mathematics Standards, 2014, Grade 3, p. 23.
 Agaliotis, I. and A. Teli, “Teaching arithmetic combinations of multiplication and division to students with learning disabilities or mild intellectual disability: The impact of alternative fact grouping and the role of cognitive and learning factors”, Journal of Education and Learning, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2016, pp. 90-103.
 Baroody, A.J., N.P. Bajwa, and M. Eiland, “Why can’t Johnny remember the basic facts? Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, Vol. 15 No. 1, 2009, pp. 69-
 Baroody, A.J. “Mastering the basic number combinations”, Teaching Children Mathematics, Aug. 2006, pp. 22-31.
 Crawford, D.B., “The third stage of learning math facts: Developing automaticity”, R&D Instructional Solutions, pp. 2003, pp. 1-40. https://www.rocketmath.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Math-Facts-research.1.pdf
 Woodward, J, “Developing automaticity in multiplication facts: Integrating strategy instruction with timed practice drills”, Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2006, pp. 269-289.
 Baker, A.T. and J. Cuevas, “The importance of automaticity development in mathematics”, Georgia Educational Researcher, Vol. 14 No. 2, 2018, pp. 11-23.
 Bouck, E.C., L. Bassette, T. Taber-Doughty, L.M. Flanagan, and K. Szwed, “Pentop computers as tools for teaching multiplication to students with mild intellectual disabilities”, Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 44 No. 3, 2009, pp. 367-380.
 Geary, D.C., M.K. Hoard, J. Byrd-Craven, L. Nugent, and C. Numtee, “Cognitive mechanisms underlying achievement deficits in children with mathematical learning disability”, Child Development, Vol. 78 No. 4, 2007, pp. 1343-1359.
 Gersten, R., N.C. Jordan, and J.R. Flojo, “Early identification and interventions for students with mathematical difficulties”, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 38 No. 4, 2005, 293-304.
 Van De Walle, J.A., K.S. Karp, and J.M. Bay-Williams, Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA, 2010.
 Miller, S.P. and P.J. Hudson, “Helping Students with Disabilities Understand What Mathematics Means”, Teaching Exceptional Children, Vol. 39 No. 1, 2006, pp. 28-35.
 Hinton, V., S.D. Strozier, and M.M. Flores, “Building Mathematical Fluency for Students with Disabilities or Students At-Risk for Mathematics Failure”, International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, Vol. 2 No. 4, Oct. 2014, pp. 257-265.
 Mudaly, V. and J. Naidoo, “The concrete-representational-abstract Sequence of Instruction in Mathematics Classrooms”, Perspectives in Education, Vol. 33 No. 1, 2015, pp. 42-56.
 Stroizer, S., V. Hinton, M. Flores, and L. Terry, “An Investigation of the Effects of CRA Instruction and Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder”, Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 50 No. 2, 2015, pp. 223-236.
 Flores, M.M., V.M. Hinton, S.D. Strozier, and S.L. Terry, “Using the Concrete-representational-abstract Sequence and the Strategic Instruction Model to Teach Computation to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities”, Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 49 No. 4, 2014, pp. 547-554.
 Miller, S.P., C.D. Mercer, and A.S. Dillon, “CSA: Acquiring and Retaining Math Skills”, Intervention in School and Clinic, Vol. 28 No. 2, 1992, pp. 105-110.
 Morin, V.A. and S.P. Miller, “Teaching multiplication to middle school students with mild intellectual disabilities, Education and Treatment of Children, Vol. 21 No. 1, 1998, pp. 22-36.
 Parmar, R.S., R. Frazita, and J.F. Cawley, “Mathematics Assessment for Students with Mild Disabilities: An Exploration of Content Validity”, Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 19 No. 2, 1996, pp. 127-136.
 De Los Santos, E. and B. Patton, “Making Mathematical Place Value Meaningful for a Special Needs Student”, International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2014, pp. 455-458.
 De Los Santos, E. and B. Patton, “Using Concrete and Abstract Models to Help a Special Needs Third Grader Master Whole Number Addition”, International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2016, pp. 787-793.
 De Los Santos, E., “Helping a Special Needs Student Learn Place Value in the Hundreds”, International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2017, pp. 1108-1116.