Instructional Strategy and Teacher-student Relationships as Predisposing Variables of Adult Students’ Learning Interest in the Universities

Main Article Content

Anne Omori
Dr. Edem
Mr. Etan


This study examines the extent to which instructional strategy and teacher-student relationship predict adult learners’ interest in learning in Universities in Cross River state. To achieve the aim of the study, two research questions were raised and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. The descriptive survey design of ex post facto type was employed.  Purposive sampling technique was used to select university of Calabar and Cross River University of Technology. These universities were stratified along four faculties.  A total of 200 respondents were randomly selected. Participants were 82 male and 118 female. Instructional strategies and teacher-student relationship (r=0.76) and students’ learning interest rating (r=0.76) scales were used for data collection. Data were analysed using multiple regressions at significance level of .05. Instructional strategies (ß = .679, t = 8.48) and teacher-student relationship (ß =-.170; t=2.682) had relative contribution to students’ interest in learning. Cultivating interest should not be an afterthought to the typical learning situation: Interest is essential to academic success. Therefore, adoption of instructional strategies that would motivate students’ interest and positive teacher-student relationships should be encourage  and implemented by educators in Nigerian tertiary institutions in particular, and educational system in general.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Omori, A., Okon, A., & Obun, M. (2019). Instructional Strategy and Teacher-student Relationships as Predisposing Variables of Adult Students’ Learning Interest in the Universities. International Journal of Innovation Education and Research, 7(5), 123-132.
Author Biographies

Dr. Edem, University of Calabar, Calabar

Department of Educational Foundation and Guidance and Counseling, Senior Lecturer

Mr. Etan, University of Calabar, Calabar

Institute of Education, Assistant Research Fellow


Adunola, O. “The Impact of Teachers’ Teaching Methods on the Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State,” 2011, Ogun State, Nigeria, Ego Booster Books Publishers, pp. 1-14.
Akinoso, S.O. (2011). Correlates of some factors affecting students’ achievement in secondary school mathematics in Osun State. International Journal of Education, Science, Mathematics and Environmental Studies, 3(10), University of Abuja, pp. 83-95.
Anorue, C. (2004) Patterns of Teacher Student Interaction in Social Studies in Imo State Secondary School’’ In M. Kangahi, F.C. Indoshi, T.O. Okwach, and J. Osodo (2012), Teaching styles and learners’ Achievement in Kiswahili language in secondary schools. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 1:3, pp. 62-87
Bharadwaj, B.K.and Pal, S. (2011) Mining educational data to analze student’s performance. International Journal of Advance Computer Science Application, 2, pp. 63-69.
Buseri, J.C. and Dorgu, T.E. (2011) The relevance of instructional materials for effective Curriculum delivery n Nigeria. Journal of Issues in Professional Teacher Education, 2:2, pp. 9.
Chang, Y. (2010) Students’ Perceptions of Teaching Styles and Use of Learning Strategies. Retrieved from on 27/7/2012
Davis, H. A. (2003) Conceptualising the role and influence of student- teacher relationships on children’ social and cognitive development. Educational Psychologist, 38:4, pp. 201-234.
Downey, J.A.(2008) Recommendations for fostering educational resilience in the Classroom. In P. B. Gablinske, (2014) A Case Study of Student and Teacher Relationships and the Effect on Student Learning. Open Access Dissertations, Paper 266.
Dufresne, J.R. Gerace, J.W. Leonard, W.J. Mestre, J.P. and Wenk, L. (2010) Classroom talk: A classroom communication system for active learning. 7:2, pp. 3-27 .doi: 10:1007/ BF 02948592
Frontczak, N.T. (1998) A paradigm for the selection, use and development of experiential learning activities in marketing education’’, Marketing Educational Review 8:3, pp..25–34.
Goolsby, L. School Interest. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 2013.
Hamre, B.K. Pianta, R.C. Burchinal, M. Field, S. Crouch, J.L. Downer, J.T. Howes, C. LaParo, K. Little, C.S.(2012) A course on effective teacher-child interactions: Effects on teacher beliefs, knowledge, and observed practice. American Educational Research Journal, 49:1, pp. 88-123
Hidi, S. Renninger, K.A. and Krapp, A. (2004) Interest, a motivational variable that combines affective and cognitive functioning. In D. Y. Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The educational psychology series. Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development, pp. 89-115, Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Idigo, E.C. (2010) Effective method of Retaining Students Interest in Mathematics in Secondary Schools in Enugu East local Government area of Enugu State. In O.O. Oyewale, T.O. Ladipo, U. Lawali, L.A. Abdul Majeed, and O.V. Olagoke (2018) Critical Analysis of the factors affecting students’ performance in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis’’, Palgo Journal of Education Research, 5:1, pp. 1-14.
Joel, S.M. (2018) Relationship between teaching method and students’ performance in mathematics in public secondary schools in Dadaab Sub County, Garissa County, Kenya’’ Journal of research and method in education, 8: 5, pp. 59 – 63.
Jose, L.A. Claudia, S.and Luis, F.L. (2007) Pedagogical effect, student interest and learning performance. Journal of Business Research, pp. 960-964
Karns, G.L. (1993) Marketing student perceptions of learning activities: structure, preferences, and effectiveness’’, Journal of Marketing Education, 15, pp.3–10.
Marks, R.B. (2000) Determinants of student evaluations of global measures of instructor and course value. Journal of Marketing Education, 22:2, pp. 108–19.
Matthews, D.B. (1994) An investigation of students’ learning styles in various disciplines in colleges and universities. Journal of Humanist Education Development, 33:3, pp. 65–74
Maulana, R. (2012) Teacher-student relationships during the first year of secondary education: exploration of change and link with motivational outcomes in The Netherlands and Indonesia Groningen. In C.C. Tipton, (2017) Developing Effective Classroom Environments in a High School Looping Program: A Narrative Research Study. Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 3185.
Opdenakker, M.C. Maulana, R. and den Brok, P. (2012) Teacher-student interpersonal relationships and academic motivation within one school year: Developmental changes and linkage’’, School Effectiveness and school improvement, 23, pp. 95 – 119.
Renninger, K. A. and Hidi, S. E. (2016) The power of interest for motivation and engagement. New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Toste, J.R. (2012) Classroom working alliance: Reconceptualising teacher-student relationships. Canadian Education Associates, 52:3, pp. 20.
Tynjälä, P. (1999) Towards expert knowledge? A comparison between a constructivist and a traditional learning environment in the University. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, pp. 357–442.
Wentzel, K.R. (1991). Relations between social competence and academic achievement in early adolescence. Child Development, 62, pp. 1066-1078.
Wentzel, K.R. (2012) Teacher-student relationship and adolescent competence at school. In W. Theo, P. den Brok, T. Jan Van (Eds.), Interpersonal Relationships in Education: An overview of contemporary research. Rotterdam: The Netherlands, Sense Publishers, 2012, pp. 19 – 36.
Willemse, M., Lunenberg, M. and Korthagen, F. (2005) Values in education: a challenge for teacher educators. Teach Teach Education, 21, pp. 205–17.
Young, M.R. Klemz, B.R. and Murphy, J.W. (2003) Enhancing learning outcomes: the effects of instructional technology, learning styles, instructional methods, and student behavior’’, Journal of Marketing Education, 25:2, pp.130–42.
Yusuf, A. (2004) Effects of cooperative and competitive instructional strategies on junior secondary school students performance in social studies, in Ilorin, Nigeria. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, PDFAvailable from: [accessed May 07 2019].

DB Error: Unknown column 'Array' in 'where clause'