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: This text proposes to present briefly topics related to the state and social protection theme and their impact on the quality of education. They aim to scrutinize the historical order and evolution of the state of social protection and its emergence, as well as its importance not only in Brazil but also in the world within the field of public policies. The discussions about the quality of education in Brazil raise questions about teacher training, financing, physical structure of the building, pedagogical practice, socioeconomic profile of the student and school management - elements considered determinants of the quality of education in a school unit. Within the framework of the discussions are the external evaluations as a way of qualifying the schools and the education systems in the country. The application of tests that assess the academic performance of students from public and private schools in Brazil became a constant from the 1990s, after the State reform and with a new political agenda for the educational area, in view of the reconfiguration of the economy and the valuation of criteria such as efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and competences for Brazilian education. The guiding problem of work is pubic and social policies as an instrument of the Welfare State. It is based on the hypothesis of the need for public policies at the federal, state and municipal levels that relate to the quality of education and to what is the citizen's right or need in its basic aspects. It is a study described in documentary review and literature. It is hoped to contribute between the relationship of the state of social protection and education and reaffirm its importance for the social and political development of citizens and citizenship.
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