Main Article Content

Prof. Lucy Wairimu Kibera


An examination of literature on gender inequality has revealed that most women are disadvantaged in education as they constitute two thirds of the 750 million illiterates in the world. In addition, only one third of women have studied Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subjects that lead to financially rewarding careers compared to social-science related subjects that are studied by most women. Women are also underrepresented in research and development and professional ranks at university with 28.8 and 25 percent respectively. Women are further marginalized in terms of land ownership at 20% and in labour market at 48.5 percent compared to males with 75 percent. In addition, women earn less by 23 percent for a similar job performed by men. Women’s work mainly involves domestic work which is unpaid for. On the whole, women work nearly one hour longer than men since those who work for paid employment have to combine it with domestic work. In addition, only 11 and 12 women are heads of states and governments respectively out of 190 nations globally while only 22.8 percent of all national parliamentarians are women. Finally, health of women is endangered because they are not in charge of their reproductive health. Generally, girls and women are prone to sexual harassment and physical violence at 38 percent. In decolonising and degendering the gender divide and inequalities, social institutions such as the family, school and government must embrace new belief systems that give equal opportunities to women and men to develop their potentials to the fullest for self-development, fulfilment and determination and the benefit of the whole society.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kibera, P. L. W. (2019). GENDER, DECOLONISATION, EDUCATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF GENDER RELATIONS BY LUCY WAIRIMU KIBERA. International Journal of Innovation Education and Research, 7(3), 85-96.


Alam S.M.S. (2007) Women and Mau Mau: Rethinking Mau Mau in colonial Kenya. Palgrave Macmillan, New York
Becker G. (1964). Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. New York, Columbia University Press.
Douglas, J. (1964) The Home and the School London: MacGibbon and Kee.
EFA Global Monitoring Report (2013): Teaching and Learning: Achieving quality for all- Gender Summary. UNESCO, Paris
FAO (2018). Women in Agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development.
Genesis 2: 21-22. Retrieved from
Goldstein, H. (1987) Multilevel Models in Social and Educational Research. London: Arnold. (1995) Multilevel Statistical Models, 2nd edn. London: Arnold.
ILO (2017a). World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for women 2017. PRODOC, Geneva
ILO (2018). World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends 2018. PRODOC, Geneva
Kibera, L.W. & Kimokoti A., (2007) Fundamentals of Sociology of Education by University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi.
Kibera, L.W (1995). The Effects of School Stratification on the career and Educational Aspirations of Girls in Kenya’s Secondary Schools, Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. XII, No.1, pp 59-77.
Kiwanda (2019). Curvy, Sexy Ugandan Women Named New Tourist Attraction. Retrieved From on Wednesday, February 6 2019 (December, 2018). Meaning of the Color Blue - Bourn Creative. Retrieved,
Money, J. & Hampson, J. (1955). Hermaphroditism: recommendations concerning assignment of sex, change of sex, and psychologic management. Bulletin of the Johns. Hopkins Hospital 97: 284 - 300.
Nation Media Group (September 22, 2018). How murder has shattered Sharon Otieno's young family. Retrieved from Daily Nation, January 22, 20189
Nkuraiya N. & Kibera L.W. (2018). “Effect of Provision of Sanitary Towels on Retention of Girls in Public Primary Schools in Narok Central Division”. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. Vol. 5 No-XX, 2017
Norman, R. Z., Smith, R., & Berger, J. (1988). The processing of inconsistent status information. In M. Webster Jr., & M. Foschi (Eds.), Status Generalization. CA: Stanford University Press.
Obura, A. (1991). Changing Images: Portrayal of Girls and Women in Kenyan Textbooks, Nairobi, ACTS.
Plato (1961). Collected Dialogues. Edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1979). Emile. Trans. Allan Bloom. New York: Basic Books
The Guardian (11th December, 2017). Sexual harassment 'rife' in schools but largely unreported, study says. Retrieved from
UN Women (2017). Women in Leadership. New York: UN
UNESCO (2018). Sustainable Development Goal 4 and Its Targets. Retrieved from Https://En.UNESCO.Org/Education2030-Sdg4/Targets
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2016). Women in Science: Fact Sheet No. 43. Paris: UNESCO
UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2018). Literacy Rates Continue to Rise from One Generation to the Next. UNESCO, Paris
UNFPA (2017). State of the World Population: Reproductive Health and Rights in an age of Inequality. New York: UNFPA
United Nations (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: UN
United Nations (1952). Convention on The Political of Women. New York: UN
United Nations (1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. New York: UN
United Nations (1967). Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York: UN
United Nations (1974). Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict. New York: UN
United Nations (1979). Convention of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. New York: UN
United Nations (1993). Declaration on the elimination of violence against women. New York: UN
United Nations (1997). Universal Declaration on Democracy. New York: UN
United Nations (1999). Optimal Protocols to the Convention of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. New York: UN
Women in Academia (2017). Retrieved
Women in STEM fields, 2016. Retrieved from
World Health Organization (2017). Violence against Women. Geneva, Switzerland