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Lucy Wairimu Kibera


An examination of literature on gender inequality has revealed that most women are disadvantaged in education as they constitute two thirds of the 750 million illiterates in the world. In addition, only one third of women have studied Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subjects that lead to financially rewarding careers compared to social-science related subjects that are studied by most women. Women are also underrepresented in research and development and professional ranks at university with 28.8 and 25 percent respectively. Women are further marginalized in terms of land ownership at 20% and in labour market at 48.5 percent compared to males with 75 percent. In addition, women earn less by 23 percent for a similar job performed by men. Women’s work mainly involves domestic work which is unpaid for. On the whole, women work nearly one hour longer than men since those who work for paid employment have to combine it with domestic work. In addition, only 11 and 12 women are heads of states and governments respectively out of 190 nations globally while only 22.8 percent of all national parliamentarians are women. Finally, health of women is endangered because they are not in charge of their reproductive health. Generally, girls and women are prone to sexual harassment and physical violence at 38 percent. In decolonising and degendering the gender divide and inequalities, social institutions such as the family, school and government must embrace new belief systems that give equal opportunities to women and men to develop their potentials to the fullest for self-development, fulfilment and determination and the benefit of the whole society.


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Kibera, L. W. . (2019). GENDER, DECOLONISATION, EDUCATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF GENDER RELATIONS BY LUCY WAIRIMU KIBERA. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 7(3), 85-96.
Author Biography

Lucy Wairimu Kibera, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Professor of Education


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