Public Policies and patents for breast cancer in Brazil, India and Australia

Main Article Content

Áurea Machado de Aragão
Antônio Martins De Oliveira Júnior


This article illustrates that public policies to facilitate access to medicines, research investments, and self-awareness for breast cancer are the way to change the scenario of breast cancer in Brazil, India and Australia. The motivation was due to the fact that the literature reports breast cancer as a public health problem due to high incidence and mortality rates, whether the country is developed or not. The method adopted was the review study based on the data analysis on public policies and patents for breast cancer in Brazil, India and Australia available in official websites, INPI, Espacenet and Patentscope databases, journals and international newspapers Specialized and physical literature related to the theme. The descriptors used were cancer, breast, breast cancer, breast cancer and Australia, cancer patents, breast cancer and India. The following inclusion criteria used were year and period of publication, availability of the article in full and the intersection between the descriptors. The research concluded that there is an urgent need to prioritize public health with more investment in breast cancer research and awareness programs on the importance of early detection in those countries, primarily in India.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Aragão, Áurea M. de, & Júnior, A. M. D. O. (2018). Public Policies and patents for breast cancer in Brazil, India and Australia. International Journal of Innovation Education and Research, 6(10), 287-298.
Author Biography

Antônio Martins De Oliveira Júnior, Federal University of Sergipe

Science of the Intellectual Property department


[1] Vitry A , Roughead E. Managed entry agreements for pharmaceuticals in Australia. Health Policy. September 2014; 117(3): 345–352. Available at: DOI: . 10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.05.005

[2] Morgan SG , Vogler S, Wagner AK. Payers’ experiences with confidential pharmaceutical price discounts: A survey of public and statutory health systems in North America, Europe, and Australasia. Health Policy. April 2017;.121 (4): 354-362. Available at: DOI:

[3] WHO. World Health Organization. Cancer . 2017. Available at: mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/

[4] INCA. Instituto Nacional do Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva. Estimate 2016. Incidence of Cancer in Brazil. Ministry of Health. Rio de Janeiro, 2015.

[5] Cheek J, Garnham B , Quan, J. . What’s in a number? Issues in providing evidence of impact and quality of research(ers). Qualitative Health Research, 2016; 16 (3): 423–435, DOI: 10.1177/1049732305285701.

[6] Commonwealth of Australia. Research quality framework: Assessing the quality and impact of research in Australia: Issues paper. Retrieved December 5, 2005. Available at: reviews/ key_issues/research_quality_

[7] Ferlay J. et al. Global Burden of Breast Cancer. In: Christopher Li (ed.) Breast Cancer Epidemiology. New York: Springer, 2010: 1-19. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0685-4_1

[8] Parkin DM., Bray FI. , Devesa SS. Cancer Burden in the Year 2000: The Global Picture. European Journal of Cancer, 2001(37): 4-66. Suppl. 8

[9] world Cancer Research Fund International. Breast cancer statistics, 2016. Available at:

[10] WHO. World Health Organization. Breast Cancer Awareness Month in October. 2017a. Available at:

[11] Abraham J. The international conference on harmonization of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. In: Tietje C., Brouder A., editors. Handbook of transnational economic governance regimes. Martinus Nijhoff; Leiden: 2009:1041–1053.

[12] Abraham J , Ballinger R. Science, politics, and health in the brave new world of pharmaceutical carcinogenic risk assessment: Technical progress or cycle of regulatory capture?. Social Science & Medicine. Oct; 2012;75(8):1433–1440. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.04.043

[13] Parker L. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: an empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers. Health Policy. Available online 18 March 2017. Available at: . DOI:

[14] NCCN. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Guidelines for Treatment of Cancer by Site. 2017. Available at:

[15] INPI. Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial. Database query. Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade. Available at:

[ 16 ] Patenscope database. Available at:

[17 ] Espacenet database. Available at:

[18] WHO. World Health Organization. Cancer . 2017b. Available in:

[19] Brazil. Ministry of Health. Ordinance n. 3.276, Dez.28, 2007. It establishes that institutions that choose to develop projects to support the institutional development of the Unified Health System - SUS should attend the stages of qualification and the presentation of projects. Official Diary of the Union, December 31 2007. Available at: prt3276_28_12_

[20] Kaliks RA et al. Treatment of breast cancer patients from a public healthcare system in a private center: costs of care for a pilot public-private partnership in oncology. São
Paulo: Einstein, Apr./June 2013;11 (2). Available at:

[21] Brazil. Law 11.664, April 29, 2008. (Provides for the implementation of health actions that ensure the prevention, detection, treatment and follow-up of cancers of the uterine cervix and breast, under the Unified Health System - SUS). Brasília: Civil House. Available at:

[22] Avellar WO et al. Cancer Patent Scenario in Brazil: Analysis of Competitive Advantages. Journal of Cancer Policy. December 2016. DOI:

[23] Dey S. Policy Issues for Cancer Control in India. ETHealthworld . Feb 25, 2015, 08.01 AM IST, 2015.

[24] Agarwal G, Ramakant P. Breast Cancer Care in India: The Current Scenario and the Challenges for the Future. Breast Care (Basel), 2008; 3(1):.21-27.

[25] NHP. National Health Portal. India. Breast Cancer Awareness Month. 2016. Available at:

[26] Badwe RA., Dikshit R, Laversanne M, Bray F. Cancer incidence trends in India. PubMed. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2014; 44(5): 401-407. DOI:10.1093/jjco/

[27] Mathur M R et al. Strategies for cancer prevention in India - Catching the ‘low hanging fruits’. Journal of Cancer Policy, 2014; 12(4): 105-106. DOI:

[28] Gupta A., Shridhar K., Dhillon PK. A review of breast cancer awareness among women in India: Cancer literate or awareness deficit? Science Direct. European Journal of Cancer, 2015;51(14): 2058-2066. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.07.008

[29] Hayden EC. India spurns cancer patents. Nature, 2013. Available at:

[30] Gupta SG. Breast cancer: Indian experience, data, and evidence. South Asian Journal of Cancer,2016;5(3):85-86.

[31] Cancer Council Australia, Annual Review 2015-2016. Available at: http:annualreview.

[32] Cancer Council Australia. National Cancer Prevention Policy. 2015. Available at:

[33] Autralian Government. Breast cancer in Australia. 2016. Available at:

[34] Whitty JA, Littlejohns P. Social values and health priority setting in Australia: An analysis applied to the context of health technology assessment. Health Policy. February 2015;119(2):127-136. Available at: