Determinants of Competence and Self-Regulation among Secondary Physical Education Students in Ghana
Keywords:Autonomy, competence, physical education, high school, Ghana
The satisfaction of the needs for both competence and self-regulation influence student motivation. Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), this study examined the influence of gender, grade level, program type, and school sport participation (SSP) on perceived competence and self-regulation among secondary physical education students. Participants included 158 students (109 males and 49 females) aged 14 to 24 years old (M = 18.91; SD = 1.48) enrolled in compulsory second and third year (Grades 11-12) PE at one high school in Ghana. The students completed the Perceived Competence Scale (PCS) and the Self-Regulation Questionnaire-Learning (SRQ-L). The PCS and SRQ-L were reworded to pertain to the PE context. The SRQ-L had two subscales: autonomy regulation (AUT) and controlled regulation (CTR). The percentage of students with high levels of PCS, AUT, and CTR were 46.20%, 49.37%, and 18.99% respectively. PCS had a significant positive correlation with AUT, CTR, and grade level. In addition, PCS, AUT, and CTR all had significant positive correlations with grade level. The mean differences for PCS, AUT, and CTR differed by grade level and program type, but not gender or SSP. Differences in grade level and program type should be considered in helping students enhance their perceived competence and self-determination in PE.
Acheampong, K., Pryor, J., & Ampiah, J. G. (2006). A vision of successful schooling: Ghanaian teachers’ understanding of learning, teaching, and assessment. Comparative Education, 42(2), 155-176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03050060600627936
Ammah, J.O.A.A., & Kwaw, N.P. (2005). Physical education in Ghana. In U. Puhse & M. Gerber (Eds.). International comparison of physical education. Concept - problems - prospects. Aachen, Meyer & Meyer Verlag. pp. 311-327.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, G. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy-enhancing and suppressing teacher behaviors predicting students’ engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 261–278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/000709902158883
Bao, X., & Lam, S. (2008). Who makes the choice? Rethinking the role of autonomy and relatedness in chinese children. Child Development, 79(2), 269-283. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01125.x
Black, A. E., &Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740-756. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-237X(200011)84:6<740::AID-SCE4>3.0.CO;2-3
Carroll, B., & Loumidis J. (2001). Children’s perceived competence and enjoyment in physical education and physical activity outside school. European Physical Education Review, 7(1), 24-43. doi: 10.1177/1356336X010071005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X010071005
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the selfdetermination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-Determination Theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49, 182-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012801 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: an overview of self-determination theory. The Oxford handbook of human motivation. New York: Oxford University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195399820.013.0006
Goudas, M., Biddle, S. J. H., & Fox, K. R. (1994). Perceived locus of causality, goal orientations, and perceived competence in school physical education classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology 64, 453–63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1994.tb01116.x
Graham, G., Holt/Hale, S.A., & Parker, M. (2013). Children Moving: A reflective approach to teaching physical education (9th Ed.) New York, NY: McGraw Hill Companies Inc.
Hagger, M.S., Chatzisarantis, N., Culverhouse, T. & Biddle, S. J. H. (2003). The processes by which perceived autonomy support in physical education promotes leisure-time physical activity intentions and behavior: A transcontextual model. Journal of Educational Psychology 95, 784–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1684
Hardman, K. (2008). Physical education in schools: A global perspective. Kinesiology, 40(1), 5-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10038-008-0001-z
Lau, S., & Roeser, R. (2002). Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students’ situational engagement and achievement in science. Educational Assessment, 8(2), 139-162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326977EA0802_04
Ministry of Education. (2015). Education sector performance report. Accra, Ghana: Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education (2010a). Teaching syllabus for physical education: Senior high school 1-3. Accra: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education (2010b). Teaching syllabus for elective mathematics. Accra: Ministry of Education. Ministry of Education (2010c). Teaching syllabus for physics; Senior high school-1-3. Accra: Ministry of Education.
Nabie, M. J. (2016). Perceived competence and self-regulation among mathematics education teacher candidates in Ghana. Researchjournali’s Journal of Mathematics, 3(1), 1-12.
Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A prospective study of participation in optional school physical education based on self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 444–53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1244
Ntoumanis, N., & Standage, M. (2009). Motivation in physical education classes: A self-determination theory perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 194–202. doi: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104324
Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44 (3), 159 - 175. DOI: 10.1080/00461520903028990 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990
Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding the sociocultural influences on student motivation. In D. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning: Big theories revisited (Vol. 4, pp. 31–59). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press.
Rovegno, I., & Bandhauer, D. (2013). Elementary physical education: Curriculum and instruction. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Rovegno, I., Chen, W., & Todorovich, J. (2003). Accomplished teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of teaching dribbling to third grade. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 22, 426-449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.22.4.426
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 319–338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_03
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). Overview of Self-Determination Theory: An Organismic Dialectical Perspective. In E. L. Deci, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research (pp. 333). Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.
Ryan, R. M., Williams, G. C., Patrick, H., & Deci, E. L. (2009). Self-Determination Theory and Physical
Activity: The Dynamics of Motivation in Development and Wellness. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 6, 107-124.
Schunk, D. H. (2005). Self-Regulated Learning: The Educational Legacy of Paul R. Pintrich. Educational Psychologist, 40, 85-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4002_3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4002_3
SHAPE America & Human Kinetics (2014). National standards and grade-level outcomes for K-12 physical education. Retrieved September 16, 2016 from
Sofo, S., & Kanton, T. L. (2013). Perceived competence and autonomy among teacher trainees in Ghana. Journal of Social Science for Policy Implications, 1(2), 1-8.
Suthar, V., & Khooharo, A. A. (2013). Impact of students' mathematical beliefs and self-regulated learning on mathematics ability of university students. European Academic Research, 1(6), 1346-1360.
Standage, M., Duda, J. L. & Ntoumanis, N. (2003). A model of contextual motivation in physical education: Using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions. Journal of Educational Psychology 95, 97–110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
Standage, M., Duda, J. L. & Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A test of self-determination theory in school physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 411–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/000709904X22359
Tabulawa, R. (2013). Teaching and learning in context: Why pedagogical reforms fail in Sub-Saharan Africa. Dakar: Council for the Development of Social Science in Africa.
Telama, R., & Yang. X. (2000). Decline of physical activity from youth to young adulthood in Finland. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 32 (9), 1617–1622. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200009000-00015
Ulstad, S. O., Halvari, H., Sørebø, Ø., & Deci, E. L. (2016). Motivation, learning strategies, and performance in physical education at secondary school. Advances in physical education, 6, 27-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.61004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2016.61004
Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of Biopsychosocial Values by Medical Students: A Test of Self-Determination Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
Williams, G. C., Saizow, R., Ross, L., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Motivation underlying career choice for internal medicine and surgery. Social Science and Medicine, 45, 1705-1713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S02779536(97)00103-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(97)00103-2
Yıldırım, S. (2012). Teacher support, motivation, learning strategy use, and achievement: A multilevel mediation model. Journal of Experimental Education, 80(2), 150-172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2011.596855
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 Seidu Sofo, Tontie Lurimua Kanton
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.