Determinants of Competence and Self-Regulation among Secondary Physical Education Students in Ghana
Keywords:Autonomy, competence, physical education, high school, Ghana
The satisfaction of the needs for both competence and self-regulation influence student motivation. Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), this study examined the influence of gender, grade level, program type, and school sport participation (SSP) on perceived competence and self-regulation among secondary physical education students. Participants included 158 students (109 males and 49 females) aged 14 to 24 years old (M = 18.91; SD = 1.48) enrolled in compulsory second and third year (Grades 11-12) PE at one high school in Ghana. The students completed the Perceived Competence Scale (PCS) and the Self-Regulation Questionnaire-Learning (SRQ-L). The PCS and SRQ-L were reworded to pertain to the PE context. The SRQ-L had two subscales: autonomy regulation (AUT) and controlled regulation (CTR). The percentage of students with high levels of PCS, AUT, and CTR were 46.20%, 49.37%, and 18.99% respectively. PCS had a significant positive correlation with AUT, CTR, and grade level. In addition, PCS, AUT, and CTR all had significant positive correlations with grade level. The mean differences for PCS, AUT, and CTR differed by grade level and program type, but not gender or SSP. Differences in grade level and program type should be considered in helping students enhance their perceived competence and self-determination in PE.
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