REVISITING SCHOOL CULTURE
THE SCHOOL’S ROLE IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOCIO-EMOTIONAL SKILLS OF CHILDREN DURING COVID- 19 PANDEMIC
Keywords:Socio-Emotional Skills, School culture, Distance Learning, Enhancing Children’s skills
Since the abrupt change in learning mode last March 2020, schools’ administrators have been looking for ways to somehow alleviate the stress and anxiety the children have to face using the online study mode. One of the things the school management tries to address is the development of Social-Emotional Skills in children amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.
This paper seeks to analyze and bridge the gap on the roles of the schools in nurturing the Socio-Emotional Development of Children during the outbreak of the disease. Using Literature Review Method, this study is going to highlight key roles of the school leaders and educators in their tasks to help children strengthen their coping mechanism. It shall also discuss the importance of nourishing the socio-emotional skills of the children now that schools are adopting the Distance Learning. Moreover, it will present possible strategies to foster a school culture geared toward the safety and improvement of the child’s socio-emotional skills.
Allensworth, E. M., Farrington, C. A., Gordon, M. F., Johnson, D. W., Klein, K., McDaniel, B., & Nagaoka, J. (2018). Supporting Social, Emotional, & Academic Development. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Consortium on School Research.
Aliyyah, R. R., Rachmadtullah, R., Samsudin, A., Syaodih, E., Nurtanto, M., & Tambunan, A. R. S. (2020). The Perceptions of Primary School Teachers of Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period: A Case Study in Indonesia. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(2), 90–109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/388
American Psychological Association. (2020). APA’s Guide to Schooling and Distance Learning During COVID-19.
Attanasio, O., Cattan, S., Fitzsimons E., Meghir, C., & Rubio- Codina, M. (2020), “Estimating the production function for human capital: results from a randomized controlled trial in Colombia”. American Economic Review, 110(1): 48-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20150183
Battistin, T., Mercuriali, E., Zanardo, V., Gregori, D., Lorenzoni, G., Nasato, L., & Reffo, M. E. (2020). Distance support and online intervention to blind and visually impaired children during the pandemic COVID-19. Research in Developmental Disabilities. . https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103816 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103816
Bhamani, S., Makhdoom, A. Z., Ali, N., Bharuchi, V., Kaleem, S., & Ahmed, D. (2020). Home learning in times of COVID: Experiences of Parents. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 7(1), 9–26. https://doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v7i1.3260 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v7i1.3260
Burgess, S., & Sievertsen, H. H. (2020, April 1). The impact of COVID-19 on education.VOX, CEPR Policy Portal. https://voxeu.org/article/impact-covid-19-education.
Center for Diseases and control prevention (CDC). (2020, February 12). Operational Strategy for K-12 Schools through Phased Mitigation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/operation-strategy.html.
Chernyshenko, O. S., Kankaraš, M., & Drasgow, F. (2018). Social and emotional skills for student success and well-being: Conceptual framework for the OECD study on social and emotional skills. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Cipriano, C., Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., & Brackett, M. (2020). Supporting School Community Wellness with Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) During and After a Pandemic. Edna Bennet Pierce Research Center.
Confeld, S. (2016). The Importance of a Positive School Culture (thesis).
Dalton, L., Rapa, E., and Stein, A. (2020). Protecting the psychological health of children through effective communication about COVID-19. Lancet Child Adolesc. Health, 4:346–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30097-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30097-3
Darling-Churchill, K. E. (2016). Early childhood social and emotional development: Advancing the field of measurement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 1–7. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.appdev.2016.02.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2016.02.002
Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (2016). Shaping School Culture: Third Edition. Jossey-Bass. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119210214
Ettekal, A. V., & Agans, J. P. (2020). Positive Youth Development Through Leisure: Confronting the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Youth Development, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2020.962 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2020.962
Frauenberger, C., Good, J., & Pares, N. (2016). Autism and technology: Beyond assistance & intervention. In Proceed-ings of the CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 3373–3378. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2851581.2856494
G., R., & Lal Ahmed, M. A. (2020). Online education as a solution to pandemic: prospects and risks. Juni Khyat (UGC Care Group I Listed Journal), 10(6).
Goagoses, N., Winschiers-Theorphilus, H., & Bosomefi, M. (2020). The (Potential) Role of Technology for Young Children’s Social-Emotional Learning: During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic. Digital Government: Research and Practice, 2(1). https://doi.org/https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3429986 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3429986
Gueldner, B. A., Feuerborn, L. L., & Merrel, K. W. (2020). Social and Emotional Learning in the classroom: Promoting mental health and academic success. The Guilford Press.
Granda, G. (2020). España es el único país de Europa donde los niños no pueden salir de casa [Spain is the only country in Europe where children cannot leave home]. La Razón. https://www.larazon.es/salud/20200413/ima5qc2n6nhvpjhdgsuy6bgmwa.html
Hamzelou, J. (2020). World in lockdown. New Scientist, 7.https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24532754-200-world-in-lockdown-as-coronavirus-cases-soar/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0262-4079(20)30611-4
Harris, A. (2020). COVID-19 – school leadership in crisis? Journal of Professional and Capital Community. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JPCC-06-2020-0045/full/html. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JPCC-06-2020-0045
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning. Why It Matter to Education: EDUCAUSE Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning.
Idioaga, N., Berasategi, N., Eiguren, A., & Picaza, M. (2020). Exploring Children’s Social and Emotional Representations of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Original Research, 11. https://doi.org//10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01952 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01952
Ifdil, I., Fadli, R. P., Suranata, K., Zola, N., & Ardi, Z. (2020). Online mental health services in Indonesia during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102153
Jones, S. M., & Khan, J. (2017). The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students’ Social, Emotional, and Academic Development. The Aspen Institute .
Léon, M. (2020). Childhood in confinement [Childhood in Confinement]. El País. https://elpais.com/elpais/2020/04/07/opinion/1586278325_512203.html
Müller, L. M., & Goldenberg, G. (2020). Education in times of crisis: The potential implications of school closures for teachers and students, 2–62. https://chartered.college/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/CCTReport150520_FINAL.pdf.
Minahan, J. (2020). Maintaining Connections, Reducing Anxiety While School Is Closed. Educational Leadership.
Moroni, G., Nicoletti, C., & Tominey, E. (2020, April 9). Children's socio-emotional skills and the home environment during the. VOX, CEPR Policy Portal. https://voxeu.org/article/children-s-socio-emotional-skills-and-home-environment-during-covid-19-crisis.
National Education Goals Panel (1995). Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED391576.
OECD (2020a). (2020). A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. Paris: OECD Publishing.
OECD (2020b). (2020). Education responses to COVID-19: Embracing digital learning and online collaboration. OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (Covid-19). https://www. oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/education-responses-to-covid-19-embracing-digitallearning-and-online-collaboration-/
OECD (2020c). (2020). VET in a time of crisis: Building foundations for resilient vocational education and training systems. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Onyema, E. M., Eucheria, N. C., Obafemi, F., Sen, S., Atonye, F. G., Sharma, A., & Alsayed, A. (2020). Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic on Education. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(13), 108–121.
Ozer, M., & Suna, H. E. (2020). The Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education. In Reflections on the Pandemic: In the Future of the World (pp. 158–178). essay, Turkish Academy of Sciences.
Pavone, P., Giallongo, A., La Rocca, G., Ceccarelli, M., and Nunnari, G. (2020). Recent COVID-19 outbreak: effect in childhood. Infect. Dis. Trop. Med. 6:e594. https://doi.org/10.32113/idtm_20203_594
Phelps, C., & Sperry, L. L. (2020). Children and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 12(S1). https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000861 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000861
Rusmayadi, R., & Herman, H. (2019). Effects of Social Skills on Early Childhood Independence. Journal of Educational and Science Technology, 5(2). https://doi.org/ 10.26858/est.v5i2.9274 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26858/est.v5i2.9274
Supriyanto, A., Hartini, S., Irdasari, W. N., Miftahul, A., Oktapiana, S., & Mumpuni, S. D. (2020). Teacher professional quality: Counselling services with technology in Pandemic Covid-19. Counsellia: Jurnal Bimbingan Dan Konseling, 10(2), 176–189. https://doi.org/10.25273/counsellia.v10i2.7768 DOI: https://doi.org/10.25273/counsellia.v10i2.7768
The Spanish Children’s Rights Coalition (2020). El Comité de los Derechos del niño de NNUU advierte del grave impacto físico, emocional y psicológico del COVIDen los niños y pide a los estados que tomen medidas [The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child warns of the serious physical, emotional and psychological impact of COVID on children and calls on States to take action]. http://plataformadeinfancia.org/el-comite-de-los-derechos-del-nino-de-nnuu-advierte-del-grave-impacto-fisico-emocional-y-psicologico-del-covid-en-los-ninos-y-pide-a-los-estados-que-tomen-medidas/?fbclid=IwAR3tz1TuEyyXgW8pg4isOH5IUUfYWMtZ2feq0wzHkC99ckUJbUkcho8K_8s#.XpB6lx8meLI.facebook
Thompson, R. A., & Lagattuta, K. H. (2006). Feeling and Understanding: Early Emotional Development.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2020). COVID-19 Educational Disruption and Response. https://en.unesco.org/news/covid-19-educational-disruption-and-response.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)., United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)., World Health Organizations (WHO)., & United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2020). COVID-19 and its implications for protecting children online. https://www.unicef.org/sites/default/files/2020-04/COVID-19-and-Its-Implications-for-Protecting-Children-Online.pdf
Villaseñor, P. (2017). The different ways that teachers can influence the socio-emotional development of their students: A literature review. 1–26.
Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., and Jiang, F. (2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet 395, 945–947. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X
World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). COVID 19-Timeline. https://www.who. int/news-room/detail/27-04-2020-who-timeline---covid-19
World Health Organization(WHO). (2020, March 18). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak . World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf
Yoder, N., Posamentier, J., Godek, D., Seibel, K., & Dusenbury, L. (2020). State Efforts to Elevate Social and Emotional Learning During the Pandemic. Committee for Children.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Ruth Claire Bustos, Emily B. Tan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.