Main Article Content
It aims to address the freedom of speech issue from a Kantian point of view, based on the concepts about public use of reason and thinking for oneself, the required conditions for publicity and its relation to fair, as opposed to the unfair and the lie. Moreover, this study addresses the problem of factual truth within the political sphere linked to the use of lies in the different means of communication, and how the fake news reveal themselves as dangerous to the current democratic states, it has, regarding this point, as the main theoretical framework Hannah Arendt's teachings.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
KANT, I. An Answer to the Question: ‘What is Enlightenment?. In: Kant: Political Writings, Han Reiss (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
KANT, I. What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking?. In: Religion and Rational Theology. Allen W. Wood and George Di Giovanni (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
KANT, I. Toward Perpetual Peace and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History. Pauline Kleingeld (ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
KANT, I. The Conflict of the Faculties. New York: Abaris Book, 1979.
KANT, I. On a Supposed to Tell Lies from Benevolent Motives. In: Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason and Other Works on the Theory of Ethics. London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1909.
KANT, I. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
KANT, I. Ideia de uma História Universal de um Ponto de Vista Cosmopolita. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2003.
TERRA, R.R. Juízo Político e Prudência em À Paz Perpétua. In: Kant no Brasil. São Paulo: Editora Escuta, 2005.
BOBBIO, N. Direito e Estado no Pensamento de Emanuel Kant. São Paulo: Mandarim, 2000.
CALORI, F. ‘Laut Denken’: a Transparência em Kant. In: O Público e Suas Normas. Maria Isabel Limongi, Vinicius de Figueredo e Luiz Repa (eds.). São Paulo: Barcarolla, 2015.
CHAVES,R. Política e Mídia: o Conflito entre Opinião e Verdade na Obra de Hannah Arendt. Revista Panorama, XI (1), pp. 66 -72, 2016.
BUCCI. E. Pós-política e Corrosão da Verdade. Revista USP, (116), pp. 19-30, 2018.
LAFER, C. Sobre a mentira. O Estado de São Paulo, July, 20, 2008. [Online]. Available: https://www.flc.org.br/sobre-a-mentira-celso-lafer/. [Accessed: Nov. 12, 2019].
LAFER, C. Hannah Arendt: Pensamento, Persuasão e Poder. Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo: Paz e Terra 2018.
PASQUINI, P. 90% dos Eleitores de Bolsonaro Acreditam em Fake News, Diz Estudo. Folha de São Paulo, Nov. 2, 2018. Available: https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/poder/2018/11/90-dos-eleitores-de-bolsonaro-acreditaram-em-fake-news-diz-estudo.shtml. [Accessed: Aug. 18, 2020].
ARENDT, H. Truth and Politics. In: Between Past and Future. New York: Penguin Books, 2006.
ARENDT, H. Responsibility and Judgement. New York: Schoken, 2003.
AMORIM, P. H. Guardian Mostra como as Fakes News Elegeram Bolsonaro. Conversa Afiada, Oct. 30, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.conversaafiada.com.br/politica/guardi-mostra-como-as-fake-news-elegeram-bolsonaro. [Accessed: Aug. 19, 2020].
AVELAR, D. WhatsApp Fake News during Brazil Election ‘Favoured Bolsonaro’, The Guardian, Oct. 30, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/oct/30/whatsapp-fake-news-brazil-election-favoured-jair-bolsonaro-analysis-suggests. [Accessed: Aug. 19, 2020].