Main Article Content
After 265 days, since the first reported case of Covid-19, the world has reported the lost of almost one million (969.018) precious lives (WORLDOMETERS, 2020). The pandemic is a challenge for all countries, most of them eager to learn from nations that are successful against the virus. In addition, an international survey, published on April/20, by Silva (2020, p. 600), concluded that although no country is prepared to face epidemics and pandemics (NTI, JHU, and EIU, 2019), among the 16 countries investigated, Thailand, Finland, Australia, South Korea, Denmark, and Sweden are cases that Brazil could study so as not to repeat the scenarios of China, USA, Italy, and Spain. Thus, this study investigates the performance and the best management practices adopted in Thailand to save lives against Covid-19, during the first 180 days facing the pandemic. The research is useful for academy, government policymakers and authorities. It is descriptive, with the application of an online questionnaire, bibliographic and documentary research, involving the study of official sites, articles, reports, manuals, and other technical documents. A new indicator was developed (Fatality Total Index), which allowed to identify that among 20 nations with the highest number of fatal cases, the ten most critical are 1st) Mexico; 2nd) Peru; 3rd) Italy; 4th) Ecuador; 5th) Iran; 6th) Chile; 7th) UK; 8th) Belgium; 9th) Colombia; and 10th) Brazil. Some conclusions are: first) Thailand`s FTI180 is the very low, indicating that this country has learned from the lessons of the past, reason by which is the best at saving lives against the Covid-19; Third) for 86 respondents living in Thailand, wear mask, not shake hands, not hug in public, wash hands, and not wearing shoes in the house, were the five most decisive cultural practices that saved lives; Fourth) For 96 respondents living in Thailand, the ten main policy measures adopted by Thailand Government that saved lives against the Covid-19 are: first) international travel control; 2nd) public event cancellations; 3rd) schools closures; 4th) restriction on internal movement; 5th) workplaces closures; 6th) public information campaigns; 7th) effective public-private collaboration; 8th) increase the medical and personal equipment capacity; 9th) support the expansion of testing system, and 10th) wage subsidies for workers; Fifth) to save lives against Covid-19, 28 innovative products or services were identified in Thailand, with majority led by Corporations, Universities, followed by Public Sector, Start Ups, and Others.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
Agência Brasil (2020). Bolsonaro diz que Brasil pode sair da OMS. [online] Agência Brasil. Available at: https://bit.ly/32hLNVv [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Armstrong, M. (2020). Infographic: COVID-19 and Leader Approval Ratings. [online] Statista Infographics. Available at: https://bit.ly/31gieUI [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Balajee, S.A., Pasi, O.G., Etoundi, A.G.M., Rzeszotarski, P., Do, T.T., Hennessee, I., Merali, S., Alroy, K.A., Phu, T.D. and Mounts, A.W. (2017). Sustainable Model for Public Health Emergency Operations Centers for Global Settings. Emerging Infectious Diseases, [online] 23(Suppl 1), pp.S190–S195. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5711308/ [Accessed 24 Jul. 2020].  Balsari, S., Buckee, C. and Khanna, T. (2020). Which Covid-19 Data Can You Trust? [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2020/05/which-covid-19-data-can-you-trust [Accessed 5 Sep. 2020].
Barberia, L.G. and Gómez, E.J. (2020). Political and institutional perils of Brazil’s COVID-19 crisis. The Lancet, [online] 396(10248), pp.367–368. Available at: https://www.thelancet.com/article/S0140-6736(20)31681-0/fulltext [Accessed 5 Sep. 2020].
Bashir, M.F., Ma, B., Bilal, Komal, B., Bashir, M.A., Tan, D. and Bashir, M. (2020). Correlation between climate indicators and COVID-19 pandemic in New York, USA. Science of The Total Environment, 728(138835), pp.1–4. Doi https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138835
BBC News (2020). Brazil’s Bolsonaro ignores coronavirus advice. BBC News. [online] 21 Apr. Available at: https://bbc.in/2CNGfJz [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
 Bell, D.M. (2004). Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases, [online] 10(11), pp.1900–1906. Doi 10.3201/eid1011.040729
 Chakraborty, I. and Maity, P. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Science of The Total Environment, [online] 728 (138882). pp.1–7. Doi https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882
 CNN (2020). Some world leaders ignore officials’ warnings about Covid-19 - CNN Video. [online] www.cnn.com. Available at: https://cnn.it/32b3w0M [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
CNN, S.D. and I.K. (2020). Brazil President Bolsonaro replaces health minister. [online] CNN. Available at: https://cnn.it/2QdBaNF [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
CNN, D.D. and T.S. (2020). Trump made 33 false claims about the coronavirus crisis in the first two weeks of March. [online] CNN. Available at: https://cnn.it/3hul0LZ [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
 Cowling, B.J., Ali, S.T., Ng, T.W.Y., Tsang, T.K., Li, J.C.M., Fong, M.W., Liao, Q., Kwan, M.Y., Lee, S.L., Chiu, S.S., Wu, J.T., Wu, P. and Leung, G.M. (2020). Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza in Hong Kong: an observational study. The Lancet Public Health, [online] 0(0). Doi 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30090-6. Available at: https://bit.ly/3b37E6Q [Accessed 20 Apr. 2020].
Cui, Y., Zhang, Z.-F., Froines, J., Zhao, J., Wang, H., Yu, S.-Z. and Detels, R. (2003). Air pollution and case fatality of SARS in the People’s Republic of China: an ecologic study. Environmental Health, 2(1). Doi 10.1186/1476-069X-2-15
 Deep Knowledge Group (2020). COVID-19 Regional Safety Assessment. [online] DKV. Available at: https://www.dkv.global/covid-19/full-report [Accessed 22 Aug. 2020].
Dessler, G. (2004). Management: Principles and practices for tomorrow’s leaders. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Drucker, P. F. (1954).The practice of management. New York, Harper & Row. 18th edition. Harvard.
Euronews (2020). Bolsonaro now the “poster boy” for dubious COVID treatment. [online] euronews. Available at: https://bit.ly/3gihK4M [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
 Flaxman, S., Mishra, S., Gandy, A. et al. (2020). Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2405-7
GBD 2017 SDG Collaborators (2018). Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.The Lancet, [online] 392(10159), pp.2091–2138. Doi 10.1016/s0140-6736(18)32281-5.
Glick, P. (2020). Why Some Male Leaders Won’t Follow COVID-19 Safety Protocols. Scientific American. [online] Available at: https://bit.ly/2QftRVO [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Graham, D.A. (2020). Why Trump Was Deaf to All the Warnings He Received. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://bit.ly/31fqi8q [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Golding, N. et. al. (2020). Reconstructing the global dynamics of under-ascertained COVID-19 cases and infections. MedRxiv. Doi https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.20148460
 Gomes da Silva, J. and Assunção de Souza, J. (2019). 36 Best Management Practices for Manaus-Amazon Urban Afforestation. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 7(12), pp.696–743. Doi 10.31686/ijier.vol7.iss12.2127
Ha, B.T.T., Ngoc Quang, L., Mirzoev, T., Tai, N.T., Thai, P.Q. and Dinh, P.C. (2020). Combating the COVID-19 Epidemic: Experiences from Vietnam. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), p.3125.
Hamilton, L. (2020). What sets good and bad leaders apart in the coronavirus era. [online] The Conversation. Available at: https://bit.ly/32eYxfl [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Haltiwanger, J. (2020). The anti-science leadership of Trump, Bolsonaro, and Putin led to the worst coronavirus outbreaks in the world. [online] Business Insider. Available at: https://bit.ly/327m4i8 [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
 Holmes, K.V. (2003). SARS coronavirus: a new challenge for prevention and therapy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 111(11), pp.1605–1609. Doi 10.1172/JCI18819
Human Right Watch (2020). Brazil: Bolsonaro Sabotages Anti-Covid-19 Efforts. [online] Human Rights Watch. Available at: https://bit.ly/32cVR1Z [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
IMF (2020). Policy Responses to COVID19. [online] IMF. Available at: https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 [Accessed 18 Jul. 2020]. [196 countries responses]
 Institute of Medicine. (2004). Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Doi 10.17226/10915.
La, V.-P., Pham, T.-H., Ho, M.-T., Nguyen, M.-H., P. Nguyen, K.-L., Vuong, T.-T., Nguyen, H.-K.T., Tran, T., Khuc, Q., Ho, M.-T. and Vuong, Q.-H. (2020). Policy Response, Social Media and Science Journalism for the Sustainability of the Public Health System Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Vietnam Lessons. Sustainability, 12(7), p.2931.
 Kan, H.-D., Chen, B.-H., Fu, C.-W., Yu, S.-Z. and Mu, L.-N. (2005). Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality of SARS in Beijing. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, [online] 18(1), pp.1–4. Available at: http://www.besjournal.com/en/article/id/14a73fdf-d8dd-417a-8ad9-66f2986e2094 [Accessed 20 Aug. 2020].
 KPMG (2020). Thailand - KPMG Global. [online] KPMG. Available at: https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/thailand-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html [Accessed 20 Sep. 2020].
 Jones, A., (2020). How 'Overreaction' Made Vietnam A Virus Success. [online] BBC News. Available at: <https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52628283> [Accessed 3 June 2020].
Mahato, S., Pal, S. and Ghosh, K.G. (2020). Effect of lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic on air quality of the megacity Delhi, India. Science of The Total Environment, [online] 730(139086), pp.1–23. Doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139086
 McDonald, J., Rieder, R., Gore, D., Farley, R., Robertson, L. and Kiely, E. (2020). FactChecking Trump’s Attack on the WHO. [online] FactCheck.org. Available at: https://bit.ly/3aL7qB4 [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
News, A.B.C. (2020). Timeline: Tracking Trump alongside scientific developments on hydroxychloroquine. [online] ABC News. Available at: https://abcn.ws/3j3QQiV [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
NTI, JHU and EIU (2019). The Global Health Security Index 2019. Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security (JHU) and The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Available at: <https://www.ghsindex.org/> [Accessed 20 feb. 2019].
NY Times (2020). Trump Attacks W.H.O. Over Criticisms of U.S. Approach to Coronavirus. The New York Times. [online] 8 Apr. Available at: https://nyti.ms/34jxMco [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Numbeo (2020). Health Care Index by Country 2020. [online] www.numbeo.com. Available at: https://www.numbeo.com/health-care/rankings_by_country.jsp?title=2020 [Accessed 10 Jul. 2020].
 Our World in Data (2020a). Policy Responses to the Coronavirus Pandemic - Statistics and Research. [online] Our World in Data. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/policy-responses-covid.
Our World in Data (2020b). Daily vs. Total confirmed COVID-19 deaths per million. [online] Our World in Data. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/covid-deaths-daily-vs-total-per-million?time=2020-01-22..latest&country=THA~MEX~BEL~PER~ECU~COL~BRA~ITA~IRN~CHL~GBR [Accessed 24 Sep. 2020].
 OECD (2020). OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19). [online] www.oecd.org. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/policy-responses [Accessed 18 Jul. 2020]. [Countries policies responses]
 Pang, X. (2003). Evaluation of Control Measures Implemented in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak in Beijing, 2003. JAMA, 290(24), p.3215. Doi 10.1001/jama.290.24.3215
 Papadimitriou, E., A. Neves, and W. Becker. JRC Statistical Audit of the Sustainable Development Goals Index and Dashboards. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, July 2019. doi:10.2760/723763, JRC116857.
Paz, C. (2020). All the President’s Lies About the Coronavirus. [online] The Atlantic. Available at: https://bit.ly/2EepgRk [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Prata, D.N., Rodrigues, W. and Bermejo, P.H. (2020). Temperature significantly changes COVID-19 transmission in (sub)tropical cities of Brazil. Science of The Total Environment, 729(138862), pp.1–7. Doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138862
 Poznansky, M. (2020). Analysis | Apparently, Trump ignored early coronavirus warnings. That has consequences. [online] Washington Post. Available at: https://wapo.st/2EhN8Ds [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Ricard, J. and Medeiros, J. (2020). USING MISINFORMATION AS A POLITICAL WEAPON: COVID-19 AND BOLSONARO IN BRAZIL. Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review. Doi 10.37016/mr-2020-013
Rigby, D. (2001). Management tools and techniques: A survey. California Management Review, 43(2), 139-160.
Romano, A. (2020). A new investigation reveals Trump ignored experts on Covid-19 for months. [online] Vox. Available at: https://bit.ly/2QgC8sB [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Roser, M., Ritchie, H., Ortiz-Ospina, E. and Hasell, J. (2020). Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19). Our World in Data. [online] Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus/country/thailand?country=~THA [Accessed 25 Sep. 2020].
 Saadat, S., Rawtani, D. and Hussain, C.M. (2020). Environmental perspective of COVID-19. Science of The Total Environment, [online] 728(138870), pp.1–6. Doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138870
 Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G. and Woelm, F. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19. Sustainable Development Report 2020. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [online] Sdgindex.org. Available at: https://www.sdgindex.org/ [Accessed 25 Aug. 2020].
 Samuels, E. and Kelly, M. (2020). Analysis | How false hope spread about hydroxychloroquine to treat covid-19 — and the consequences that followed. [online] Washington Post. Available at: https://wapo.st/2EhWJKH [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
 Schmidt-Traub, G., C. Kroll, K. Teksoz, D. Durand-Delacre, and J.D. Sachs (2017). “National baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals assessed in the SDG Index and Dashboards.” Nature Geoscience, 10(8), 547–555. Doi 10.1038/ngeo2985
Segundo, iG Ú. (2020). Depois de cloroquina, Bolsonaro divulga vermífugo para Covid-19. [online] Último Segundo. Available at: https://bit.ly/2YoHg2i [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Silva, J.G. da (2020). Evolution of COVID19 new cases in 16 countries and Scenarios for Brazil using metaphorical analysis of Board, Inverted Pyramid and Papyri. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, [online] 8(4), pp.560–607. Doi 10.31686/ijier.vol8.iss4.2314
 Start Up Blink (2020). Global Map of Coronavirus Innovations. [online] coronavirus.startupblink.com. Available at: https://coronavirus.startupblink.com/
Statista (2020). Brazil: Bolsonaro’s fake statements on COVID-19. [online] Statista. Available at: https://bit.ly/3aJvaWx [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
Sutherland, J., & Canwell, D. (2004). Key concepts in management. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
 Svoboda, T., Henry, B., Shulman, L., Kennedy, E., Rea, E., Ng, W., Wallington, T., Yaffe, B., Gournis, E., Vicencio, E., Basrur, S. and Glazier, R.H. (2004). Public Health Measures to Control the Spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome during the Outbreak in Toronto. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(23), pp.2352–2361. Doi 10.1056/NEJMoa032111
 The Lancet, E. (2020). COVID-19 in Brazil: “So what?” The Lancet, 395(10235), p.1461. Doi 10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31095-3
Tisdall, S. (2020). From Trump to Erdoğan, men who behave badly make the worst leaders in a pandemic | Simon Tisdall. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://bit.ly/2EeK5vV [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
United Nations Population Fund, U. (2019). World Population Dashboard. [online] Unfpa.org. Available at: https://www.unfpa.org/data/world-population-dashboard [Accessed 3 Jul. 2020].
 Van Assen, M., Van Den Berg, G., & Pietersma, P. (2009). Key management models: The 60+models every manager needs to know. Harlow: Prentice Hall
 Zambrano-Monserrate, M.A., Ruano, M.A. and Sanchez-Alcalde, L. (2020). Indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment. Science of The Total Environment, 728 (138813), pp.1–4. Doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138813
 Yunus, A.P., Masago, Y. and Hijioka, Y. (2020). COVID-19 and surface water quality: Improved lake water quality during the lockdown. Science of The Total Environment, [online] 731(139012), pp.1–8. Doi 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139012
Ward, A. (2020). World leaders who denied the coronavirus’s danger made us all less safe. [online] Vox. Available at: https://bit.ly/2CMyFPd [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
 Watts, J. (2003). Report details lessons from SARS outbreak. The Lancet, 362 (9391), p.1207. Doi 10.1016/s0140-6736(03)14561-8.
 Wang, C.J., Ng, C.Y. and Brook, R.H. (2020). Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan. JAMA, 323(14). doi:10.1001/jama.2020.3151
 Wessel, L. (2020). ‘It’s a nightmare.’ How Brazilian scientists became ensnared in chloroquine politics. [online] Science | AAAS. Available at: https://bit.ly/2YibUub [Accessed 21 Aug. 2020].
WHO (2003). Summary table of SARS cases by country, 1 November 2002 - 7 August 2003. [online] WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/2003_08_15/en/ [Accessed 6 Jun. 2020].
 WHO (2012). WHO | SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). Who.int. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/ith/diseases/sars/en/ [Accessed 20 Aug. 2020].
 WHO (2020). Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. [online] www.who.int. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it [Accessed 18 Aug. 2020].
WHO (2020b). Overview of Public Health and Social Measures in the context of COVID-19. [online] www.who.int. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/overview-of-public-health-and-social-measures-in-the-context-of-covid-19 [Accessed 22 Sep. 2020].
 Worldometer (2020). Coronavirus Toll Update: Cases & Deaths by Country of Wuhan, China Virus - Worldometer. [online] Worldometers.info. Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/