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Naringin and naringenin are flavonoids found in citrus fruits and have several health benefits, however these compounds are susceptible to degradation, limiting their therapeutic application. To solve this problem, an alternative is to incorporate them into nanocapsules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of these nanocapsules against renal and hepatic serum markers and also on the activities of pyruvate kinase, Mg2+-ATPase, and creatine kinase. Nanocapsules containing naringin and naringenin, nanocapsules without the active compounds and the compounds in their free form were administered orally, once a day, for 28 days. After treatment, the serum levels of hepatic and renal markers were not altered, nor the activities of pyruvate kinase tissue, however, the treatment of nanocapsules with flavonoids increased the activities of mitochondrial creatine kinase in the kidney and hepatic Mg2+-ATPase. Thus, renal and hepatic serum markers, which are normally used as indicators of toxicity, did not change after the period of administration of the nanoparticles. However, the activities of important enzymes of the energy metabolism in these organs were affected. Our findings reinforce that nanomaterial testing for toxicity needs to go beyond traditional methods to ensure the safe use of nanoparticles for therapeutic purposes.
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