Energy metabolism gluconeogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation

Main Article Content

Luis Henrique Almeida Castro
Leandro Rachel Arguello
Nelson Thiago Andrade Ferreira
Geanlucas Mendes Monteiro
Jessica Alves Ribeiro
Juliana Vicente de Souza
Sarita Baltuilhe dos Santos
Fernanda Viana de Carvalho Moreto
Ygor Thiago Cerqueira de Paula
Vanessa de Souza Ferraz
Tayla Borges Lino
Thiago Teixeira Pereira


Most animal cells are able to meet their energy needs from the oxidation of various types of compounds: sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, but some tissues and cells of our body depend exclusively on glucose and the brain is the largest consumer of all. That is why the body has mechanisms in order to keep glucose levels stable. As it decreases, the degradation of hepatic glycogen occurs, which maintains the appropriate levels of blood glucose allowing its capture continues by those tissues, even in times of absence of food intake. But this reserve is limited, so another metabolic pathway is triggered for glucose production, which occurs in the kidneys and liver and is called gluconeogenesis, which means the synthesis of glucose from non-glucose compounds such as amino acids, lactate, and glycerol. Most stages of glycolysis use the same enzymes as glycolysis, but it makes the opposite sense and differs in three stages or also called deviations: the first is the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate and oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate. The second deviation is the conversion of fructose 1,6 biphosphate to fructose 6 phosphate and the third and last deviation is the conversion of glucose 6 phosphate to glucose.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Almeida Castro, L. H., Rachel Arguello, L., Andrade Ferreira, N. T., Mendes Monteiro, G., Alves Ribeiro, J., Vicente de Souza, J., Baltuilhe dos Santos, S., Viana de Carvalho Moreto, F., Cerqueira de Paula, Y. T., de Souza Ferraz, V., Borges Lino, T., & Teixeira Pereira, T. (2020). Energy metabolism: gluconeogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 8(9), 359-368.
Author Biography

Luis Henrique Almeida Castro, Federal University of Grande Dourados

PhD in the Health Sciences Graduate Program


DEVLIN, T. M. Manual of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations. America: Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1998.

EXTON, J.H. Gluconeogenesis. Metabolism, v. 21, n. 10, p. 945-990, 1972.

HATTING, Maximilian et al. Insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, v. 1411, n. 1, p. 21, 2018.

HEMS, R. et al. Gluconeogenesis in the perfused rat liver. Biochemical Journal, v. 101, n. 2, p. 284-292, 1966.

MADIRAJU, Anila K. et al. Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis via the redox-dependent mechanism in vivo. Nature medicine, v. 24, n. 9, p. 1384-1394, 2018.

MARZZOCO, A.; TORRES, B. B. Basic biochemistry. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 2007.

NELSON, D. L.; COX, M. M. Lehninger's principles of biochemistry. São Paulo: Sarvier, 2002.

PERRY, Rachel J. et al. Glucagon stimulates gluconeogenesis by INSP3R1-mediated hepatic lipolysis. Nature, v. 579, n. 7798, p. 279-283, 2020.

YAN, Hui et al. Estrogen improves insulin sensitivity and suppresses gluconeogenesis via the transcription factor Foxo1. Diabetes, v. 68, n. 2, p. 291-304, 2019.

Most read articles by the same author(s)