A Study on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Banking Industry
Keywords:Organization Citizenship Behaviour, Competency, Quality of Work Life, Leader Member Exchange
Organ (1988) defined organization citizenship behavior (OCB) as the individual’s behavior that is discretionary not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. There has been numerous studies performed on organization citizenship behavior and antecedents of this behavior were explored since this behavior contributes to the effective functioning of an organization. The positive contribution of OCB to organizational performance is widely accepted by literature(Podsakoff and MacKenzie,1994,1997; Podsakoff et al.,2000). This behavior have been described by the service literature as being essential; for achieving superior returns. The service industry has been a major contributor to the growth and development of the Malaysian economy (Central Bank of Malaysia, 2007;Deparment of Statistics Malaysia,2010; Malaysian Industrial Development Authority,2010). According to Warrier(2010), the services sector is estimated to contribute 70 percent of GDP to Malaysia’s economy by 2020.There has been a significant correlation in literature between the relationships of competency, quality of work life, transformational leadership) and organization citizenship behavior. The research intends to explore on how this variables encourage the exhibition of OCB among the service personnel in the banking industry. The relevant hypotheses have been developed and further testing on its relationship will be conducted in order to investigate its impact on organizational citizenship behavior.
Al Swidi, A.K. & Mahmood, R. (2011). How does organizational culture shape the relationship between
entrepreneurial orientation and the organizational performance of banks. European Journal of Social
Sciences, 20(1), 28-46.
Appelbaum, S., Asmar, J. A., Chehayeb, R., Konidas, N., Duszara, V. M., & Duminica, I. (2003).
Organizational citizenship: a case study of MedLink Ltd. Team Performance Management: An
International Journal, 9 (5/6), 136-154.
Appelbaum, S. H., & Honneagar, K. (1998). Empowerment: A Constricting overview of
Organizational in General and Nursing in particular -An examination of Organizational
Behavior, Job design and Structural Power; Empowerment in Organizations.
Armstrong, M. & Baron, A. (1995). The Job Evaluation Handbook. Institute of Personnel Development,
Armstrong, M. (2000), Performance Management: Key Strategies and Practical Guidelines, Kogan Page,
Ariani, D. W. (2012). The relationship between social capital, organizational citizenship behaviours, and
individual performance: An empirical study from Banking Industry in Indonesia. Journal of
Management Research, 4 (2).Suliman Abu Bakar & Obaidli Hanan (2013) Leadership and Organization Citizenship Behaviour in the
financial sector:The case of the UAE,Journal Of Business Adminstration,Vol.5, 115-134
Bagheri, G., Matin, H. Z., & Amighi, F. (2011). The relationship between empowerment and organizational
citizenship behavior of the pedagogical organization employees. Iranian Journal of Management
Studies, 4(2), 53-62.
Barbuto, J., Brown, L., Wilhite, M., & Wheeler, D. (2001). Justify the underlying motives of
organizational citizenship behaviour: A brief study of agricultural co- op workers.
Organizational behavior: The state of the science (pp. 3-52). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Beardwell., & Holden. (2001). Human Resource Management a contemporary approach Pearson Education
Begum, N. (2005). The relationships between social power and organizational citizenship
behaviour: The meditational role of procedural justice, organizational commitment, and job
satisfaction in context of a private commercial bank in Bangladesh. A Senior Project Report Presented
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Business
Bogler, R. & Somech, A. (2005). Organizational citizenship behavior in schools. How does it relate
to participation in decision making? Journal of Educational Administration, 43, 420-438.
Bowen, D.E., & Lawler, E.E. (1992). The empowerment of service workers: What, why, how and when.
Sloan Management Review, 33(3), 31-39.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). The Competent Manager, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Cardona, P., Lawrence, B., & Bentler, P. (2004). The influence of social and work exchange relationships
on organizational citizenship behavior. Group and Organizational Management, 29(2), 219-247.
Carlson, R. J., Carlson, D. S., & Wadsworth, L. L. (2000). The relationship between individual
power moves and group agreement type: An examination and model. Advanced Management.
Cheng, M., Dainty, A., & Moore, D. (2003). The differing faces of managerial competency in Britain and
America. Journal of Management Development, 22(6), 527-37.
Chompookum, D., & Derr, C. B. (2004). The effects of internal career orientations on organizational
citizenship behavior in Thailand. Career Development International. 9 (4), 406-423.
Clutterbuck, D., & Kernaghan, S. (1995). The power of empowerment. Release the hidden talent s of your
employees. Kogan page Ltd. London.
Cohen-Charash, Y., Mueller, J. S., & Goldman, M. (2004). When do we help and when do we harm? Effects of
outcome favorability and procedural fairness on envy and behavior. Paper presented at the Academy of
Management Annual Meeting, New Orleans.
Colella, A., & Varma, A. (2001). The impact of subordinate disability on leader-member exchange
relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 304-315.
Conger, J. & Kanungo, R. (1988). The empowerment process: Integration theory and practice. Academy
management Journal, 13(3), 471-482.
Coyle-Shapiro, J., & Conway, N. (2004). Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and
perceived organisational support. Journal of Applied Psychology,
Deluga, R. J. (1994). Supervisor trust building, leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship
behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 315-326.
Farahbod, F., Azadehdel. , M., Rezaei-Dizgah, M. ,& Nezhadi-Jirdehi, M. (2012). Organizational Citizenship
Behavior: The role of organizational justice and leader-member exchange. Interdisciplinary Journal of
Contemporary Research in Business 3.9, 3(9), 893-903.
Garavan, T., & McGuire, D. (2001). Competencies and workplace learning: some reflections on the
rhetoric and the reality. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(4), 144-63.George, J. M. (1990). Personality, affect, and behavior in groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 107-116.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at
work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310- 329.
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Development of LMX (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years:
Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.
Graham, J. W. (1989). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, operationalization,
and validation , Unpublished working paper, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Greasley, K., Bryaman, A., Dainty, A., & Prince, A., et al,. (2005). Employee perceptions on
empowerment. 27(4), 354-368.
Hodson R. (2002). Management citizenship behavior and its consequences. Work and Occupations, 29
Islam Talat, Rehman Saif & Ahmad Ishfaq.(2013).Investigating the mediating role of organization
politics between leadership style and followers behavioural outcomes.Business Strategy Series,Vol 14,
John W. Newstrome & Keith Davis, (2002). Organisational Behaviour. Human behaviour at work.
TAT A McGraw - Hill.
Kiberu, R. (2009). Operant competences, professional training and performance of public sector accountants.
Makerere University dissertation. Unpublished.
Kim, S. K. (2006). The role of envy in hospitality employees’ organizational citizenship behavior: A leadermember
exchange perspective. Journals of Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management, 96.
Larson, J. E., & Gouwens, J. A. (2008). The relationship between leader member exchange and
burnout in psychiatric rehabilitation workers. Journal of Rehabilitation Administration, 32(1),
Lee, K. L. & Salleh, A. L. (2011). Mediating effects of subordinates’ competence on leadership styles and
organisational citizenship behaviour. African Journal of Business Management. 5(19), 7790-7801.
Lee, K. L. & Low, G. T. (2012). Leadership Styles and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The
Mediating Effect of Subordinates’ Competence and Downward Influence Tactics. Journal of Applied
Business and Economics. 13(2).
Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical
assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24(1), 43-72.
Livingstone, K. (2007). Passenger, handling competences, empowerment, commitment and organizational
citizenship behaviour (OCB). Master’s thesis, Makerere University.
Low, S. F. (2010), The effects of human resource management practices on service-oriented organizational
citizenship behaviors: The role of organizational commitment as a mediator.
Mahmood, R. & Abdul Wahid, R. (2012). Investigating the Effect of Intellectual Capital on Bank
Performance in Malaysia. Knowledge Management International Conference (KMICe) 2012.
Majid, M. Z. A., Sufian, F., & Alifiah, M. N. (2007). Consolidation, Market Structure and Competition in the
Malaysian Banking Industry: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia. In Unpublished paper presented in
the 15 th Annual Conference PBFEAM, Vietnam.
Malaysia's Banking. (2013, May 31). Malaysia's banking sector to stay strong IBBM. Malaysia Chronicle.
Retrieved August 12, 2013, from
Malhotra, N. K. & Peterson, M. (2006). Basic Marketing Research, (2nd ed). International Edition, Pearson
Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ.Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K. , Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S. (2000). Integrating justice and social exchange:
The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships. Academy of Management
Journal, 43, 738-748.
Mathieu, J. & Zajac, D. (1990). A review and Meta analysis of the antecedents, correlates and consequences of
organisational commitments, Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-194.
Mavridis, D.G. (2004). The intellectual capital performance of the Japanese banking sector. Journal of
Intellectual Capital, 5(1), 92-115.
Mayfield, M., & Mayfield, J. (1998). Increasing worker outcomes by improving leader follower relations. The
Journal of Leadership Studies, 5, 72-81.
McClane, W. E. (1991). The interaction of leader and member characteristics in theleader-member exchange
model of leadership. Small Group Research, 22, 283- 300.
McClelland, D.C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for intelligence. American Psychologist, 28(1), 1-
McLagan, P. (1996). Competency models: Great ideas revisited. Training & Development, 50(1), 60.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/227007290?accountid=50207
Mohammad, J.; Habib, F. Q., & Alias, M. A. (2011). Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior:
An empirical study at higher learning institutions. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 16(2), 149-
Mossholder, K. W., Bennett, N., Kemery, E. R., & Wesolowski, M. A. (1998). Relationships between
bases of power and work reactions: The mediational role of procedural justice. Journal of
Management, 24(4), 533-552.
Moye, M. & Henkin, A. (2005). Equity association between employee empowerment; and trust in
managers. Journal of management development, 25, 101-117.
Munene, J. C., Bbosa, R., & Eboyu, F. (2004). Operant competence management framework for enhancing
competence management and development in organizations in Africa. Paper presented in American
Management Conference, OH.
Ninth Malaysia Plan. (2006-2010). The National Mission, Malaysia Communications and Multimedia
Commission Planning Unit. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from
Organ, D. W. (1990). The Motivational basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Staw, B.M and
Cummings, L. L (Eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, 12, 43- 72.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA:
Organ, D. W. (1988). A restatement of the satisfaction-performance hypothesis. Journal of Management, 14(4),
Organ, D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behaviour. Research in
organizational citizenship, 12(1), 43-72.
Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behaviour: It's construct clean-up time. Human Performance,
Organ, D. W., & Konov sky, M. A. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship
behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 157-164.
Organ, D.W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: It nature,
antecedents, and consequences. USA: Sage Publications, Inc.Podsakoff, P. M., & Mackenzie, S.B. (1997). The impact of organizational citizenship behaviour in
organizational performance: review and suggestion for future research, Human Performance, 10, 133-
Posdakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, B., & Bachrach, D. (2000). Organizational citizenship
behavior: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future
research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563.
Settoon, R. P., Bennett, N., & Liden, R. (1996). Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational
support, LMX and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3), 219-227.
Soldner, J. L. (2009). Relationship among Leader-Mmber Exchange, Organizational Citizenship Behavior,
Organizational Commitment, Gender, and Dyadic Duration in a rehabilitation organization, 141.
Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2004). Exploring organizational citizenship behaviour from an
organizational perspective: The relationship between organizational learning and organizational citizenship
behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(3), 281-298.
Thacker, C. & Handscombe, B. (2003). Innovation, competitive position and industry attractiveness: a
tool to assist SMEs. Creativity and Innovation Management, 12(4), 230-239.
Tremblay, M. (2000). Organisational and individual determinants of a typical employment: The case of multiple
jobholding and self-employment, IQRC, Montreal.
Tumley, W. H., Bolino, M. C., Lester, S. W., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2003). The impact of psychological contract
fulfillment on the performance of in-role and organizational citizenship behaviors, Journal of
Management, 29, 187-206.
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L. L., & McLean Parks, J. (1995). Extra-role behavior: In pursuit of construct and
definitional clarity (A bridge over muddied waters). Research in Organizational Behavior, 17, 215-285.
Vecchio, R. P. (1995). It’s not easy being green: Jealousy and envy in the workplace. Research in Personnel
and Human Resources Management, 13, 201-244.
Waltz, S. M., & Niehoff (1996). Organizational citizenship behaviors and their effect on organizational
effectiveness in limited-menu restaurants, in Keys, J.B. and Dosier, L.N. (Ed.), Academy of
Management Best Papers Proceedings, George Southern University, Statesboro, GA,
Wan, H. L. (2011). The Role of Leader-Member Exchange in Organizational Justice Organizational
Citizenship Behaviour Relationship, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 19(2),
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and LMX: A social
exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.
Woodruffe, C. (1991). Competent by any other name", Personnel Management, 23(9), 30-3.
Wu, Y.-J. (2009). A multidimensional analysis of the relationship between Leader-Member Exchange and
organizational citizenship behaviour with an alternative measure of Leader-Member Exchange, 113.
Yukl, G. A., & Van Fleet, D.D. (1992). Theory and research on leadership inorganizations.In M.D. Dunnette
and L.M. Hough (Eds), Handbook o f industrialand organizational psychology (Vol. 3). Mountain
Veiw, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2014 Sofiah K.K, Padmashantini P, Gengeswari K
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.