Religion

Help or hindering Moral Judgment

Authors

  • Jim Thomas Indiana University Nortwest, USA

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.vol6.iss8.1126

Keywords:

Moral Development

Abstract

The goal of helping students to become ethical citizens is a concern of college educators. There have been a number of factors, which seem to contribute to this goal. Religious inclination is one factor that researchers have considered. We would expect religious people to be highly ethical. However, research suggests that is not the case. In fact, some research suggests that religion can inhibit moral growth. In most cases, religiosity negatively affected moral development.  

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Agle, B. R. and H. J. Van Buren: 1999, *God and Mammon: The Modem Relationship',

Business Ethics Quarterly 9(4), 563-582.

Al-Shebab, A.J. (2002). A cross sectional examination of levels of moral reasoning in a sample

of Kuwait university faculty members. Social Behavior and Personality, 30(8) 803-820.

Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of

personality and social psychology, 5, 432-443.

Astin, A. W. (2002). The American freshman: Thirty-five year trends, 1966-2001. Higher

Education Research Institute.stin, A. (1973).

Bampton, R. & Crowton, C.J. (2009). Working paper. Financial ethics and governance.

Research group. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, U.K. (Unpublished).

Batson, C. D. (1976). Religion as prosocial: Agent or double agent? Journal for The scientific

study of religion, 15, 29-45.Batson, C. D., & Ventis, W. L. (1982). The religious experience: A social-psychological

perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Batson, C. D., Batson, J. G., Griffitt, C. A., Barrientos, S., Brandt, J. R., Sprengelmeyer, P., &

Bayly, M. J. (1989). Negative-state relief and the empathy–altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 922–933.

Batson, C. D., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, W. L (1993). Religion and the individual: A social-

psychological perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Bay, D. (2002). A critical examination of the use of the DIT in accounting ethics research.

Critical Perspectives on Accounting 132): 159-177.

Brown, D., & Annis, L. (1978). Moral development and religious behavior. Psychological

Reports, 43(3), 12-30.

Buier, R. M., Butman, R. E., Burwell, R., & Van Wicklin, J. (1989). The critical years: Changes

in moral and ethical decision making in young adults at three Christian liberal arts colleges, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 8(3), 69-78.

Burwell, R. M., Butman, R. E., & Van Wicklin, J. (1992). Value assessment at three consortium

colleges: A longitudinal follow-up study. (Houston, TX, Houghton College). ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 345 635

Cady, S. (1982). An assessment of moral development among clergy. Unpublished honors thesis,

Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN.

Chickering, A. W. (1974). Commuting versus residential students; Overcoming the inequities of

living off campus. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Chickering, A., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA:

Jossey-Bass

Clouse, B. (1979). Moral judgment of teacher education students as related to sex, politics and

religion. Unpublished manuscript, Indiana State University, Terra Haute, IN.

Cornwall, M., Albrecht, S.L., Cunningham, P.H., & Pitcher, B.L., (1986). The dimensions of

religiosity: A conceptual model with an empirical test. Review of religious research, Mar98, Vol. 27, Issue 3, 226-245.Cummings, R., Dyas, L., & Maddux, C. (2001, April). Principled moral reasoning and behavior

of preservice teacher education students. American Education Research Journal, 38, 143-158.

Davidson, M., & Robbins, S. (1978). Stage structure in objective moral judgments.

Developmental Psychology, 14(2), 137-146.

DeJong, G.F., Faulkner, J.E., & Warland, R. H. (1976). Dimensions of religiosity considered:

Evidence from a cross-cultural study. Social forces, Vol. 54, Issue 4, June, 1976, 866.

Derryberry, W., & Thoma, S. (2000). The friendship effect: Its role in the development of moral

thinking in students. About Campus, 5(2), 13-18.

Dirks, D. H. (1988). Moral development in Christian higher education. Journal of Psychology

and Theology, 16, 324-331.

Ernsberger, D., & Manaster, G. (1981). Moral development, intrinsic/extrinsic religious

orientation and denominational teachings. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 104, 23-41.

Foster, J.D. & LaForce, B. (1999). A longitudinal study of moral, religious, and identity

development in a Christian liberal arts environment. Journal of Psychology and Theology 27(1): 52-68.

Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.

Getz, I. (1984). The relation of moral reasoning and religion: A review of the literature.

Counseling and Values, 28(3), 94-116.

Glock, C. Y., & Stark, R. (1966). Christian beliefs and Anti-Semitism. New York, NY: Harper

and Row.

Glover, R.J. (1997). Relationships in moral reasoning and religion among members of

conservative, moderate and liberal religious groups. The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 137 (2):247-254.

Gongre, W.M. (1981). A study of moral judgment, using the defining issues test, for three ethnic

groups at Bacone College. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Oklahoma State University, OK.

Good, J.L., & Cartwright, C.C. (1998). Development of moral judgment among undergraduate

university students. College Student Journal 32:270-276.Harris, A. T. (1981). A study of the relationship between stages of moral development and the

religious factors of knowledge, belief and practice in Catholic high school adolescents. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 638-639A.

Helminiak, D. A. (2001), Treating Spiritual Issues in Secular Psychotherapy. Counseling and

Values, 45: 163–189.

Holly, S. (1991). Assessing potential bias: the effect of adding religious content to the defining

issues test. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 10(4), 323-336.

Hood, A. (1984). Student development: Does participation affect growth? Bulletin of the

Association of College Unions- International 54:16-19.

Hood, R.W., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B. & Gorsuch, R. (1996). The Psychology of Religion: An

Imperical Approach. New York: Guilford Press.

Icerman, R., Karcher, J., & Kennelley, M. (1991, winter). A baseline assessment of moral

development: Accounting, other business and nonbusiness students. Accounting Educator’s Journal, 46-62.

Jeffrey, C. (1993). Ethical development of accounting students, business students, and liberal arts

students. Issues in Accounting Education, 8, 26-40.

Kidwell, J.M., Stevens, R.E., & Bethke, A.L. (1987). Differences in the ethical perceptions

between male and female managers: Myth or reality? Journal of Business Ethics, 6:489-493.

King, P. M., & Kitchener, K.S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and

promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

King, P., & Mayhew, M. (2002). Moral judgment development in higher education: Insights

from the defining issues test. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

King, P. & Mayhew, M. J. (2004). Theory and research on the development of moral reasoning

among college students. In J.C. Smart (ed.) Higher Education: Handbook of theory and research, Vol. XIX, 375-440. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive -developmental approach tosocialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 347-480). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.

Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In

T Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues (pp. 31-53). Holt, NY: Rinehart and Winston.

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development (Vol.1). San Francisco, CA: Harper

& Row.

Kohlberg, L. (1984).The psychology of moral development (Vol. 2). San Francisco, CA: Harper

& Row.

Lawrence, J. A. (1979). The component procedure of moral judgment making. Dissertation

Abstracts International, 40: 896B. (University Microfilms no.7918360).

Lawrence, J. (1987). Verbal processing of the defining issues test by principled and non-

principled moral reasoners. Journal of Moral Education, 16(2), 117-130.

McGeorge, C. (1975). The susceptibility of faking of the defining issues test of moral judgment.

Developmental Psychology, 11, 108.

McNeel, S. P. (1991). Christian liberal arts education and growth in moral judgment. Journal of

Psychology and Christianity, 10, 311-322.

McNeel, S. P. (1994). College teaching and student moral development. In J. Rest & D. Narvaez

(Eds.), Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics (pp. 26-47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

McNeal, S. P. (1994). Assessment of dimensions of morality in Christian college students. In D.

J. Lee & G. G. Stronks (Eds.), Assessment in Christian higher education: Rhetoric and reality (pp. 27-41). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Mentkowski, M., & Strait, M. (1983). A longitudinal study of student change in cognitive

development, learning styles, and generic abilities in an outcome-centered liberal arts curriculum. Milwaukee, WI: Alverno College, Office of Research and Evaluation.

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. (2006). Improving studentlearning in higher education through better accountability and assessment. Washington D.C.: The National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.

Judith Needham-Penrose, J., & Friedman, H. L. (2012). Moral identity versus moral reasoning in

religious conservatives: Do Christian evangelical leaders really lack moral maturity? The Humanistic Psychologist, 40(4), 343.

Nucci, L. (1985, April). Future direction of research on children’s moral reasoning and moral

education. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 272-282.

Parboteeah, K.P., Hoegl, M. and Cullen, J.B. (2007) Ethics and religion: An empirical test of a

multidimensional model. Journal of Business Ethics 80: 387-398.

Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights

from twenty years of research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pascarella, E. T., and Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of

research (Vol. 2). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ponemon, L., & Glazer, A. (1990). Accounting education and ethics development: The influence

of liberal learning on students and alumni in accounting practice. Issues in Accounting Education, 5(2) 21-34.

Ponemon, L. A., & Gabhart, D. R. (1994). Ethical reasoning research in the accounting and

auditing professions. In J. R. Rest, & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Moral development in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rest, J. (1979). Developments in judging moral issues. Minneapolis, MN: University of

Minnesota Press.

Rest, J. (1986). Moral development: Advances in research and theory. New York, NY: Praeger.

Rest, J. (1993). Guide to using the DIT, revised. Minneapolis, MN: Center for the Study of

Ethical Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN.

Rest, J. L., & Narvaez, D. (1994). Preface. In J. R. Rest & D. Narvaez (Eds.), Moral development

in the professions: Psychology and applied ethics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rest, J., & Narvaez, D. (1998). Guide for DIT-2. Minneapolis, MN: Center for the Study ofEthical Development, University of Minnesota.

Rest, J. R., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S. J., & Bebeau, M. J. (2000). A neo-Kolbergian approach to

morality research. Journal of Moral Education, 29 (4), 381-395.

Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Beau, M., & Thoma, S.J., (1999). Postconventional moral thinking: a neo-

kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rest, J.R., Narvaez, D., Bebeau, M. & Thom, S. (2000). Journal of Moral Education, 29 (4)

(2000), pp. 381-395.

Richards, P., & Davidson, M. (1992). Religious bias in moral development research: A

Psychometric investigation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31(4), 467-485.

St Pierre, K., Nelson, E., & Gabbin, A. (1990). A study of the ethical development of accounting

majors in relation to other business and nonbusiness disciplines. Accounting Educator’s Journal, 3, 23-35.

Sanderson, S.K. (1974). Religion, politics, and morality: An approach to religious and political

belief systems and their relation through Kohlberg’s cognitive-development theory of moral judgment. Dissertation abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 34:6259.

Sapp, G., & Gladding, S. (1989). Correlates of religious orientation, religiosity, and moral

judgment. Counseling and Values, 33(2), 140-145.

Shafranske, E. J., & Maloney, H. N. (1990). Clinical psychologists' religious and spiritual

orientation and their practice of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 27, 72–78.

Shaver, D. (1985). A longitudinal study of moral development at a conservative religious liberal

arts college. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26, 400-404.

Shaver, D. (1987). Moral development of students attending a Christian liberal arts college and a

bible college. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28, 211-218.

Smith, R.E., Wheeler, & G., Diener, E. (1975). Faith without works: Jesus people, resistance to

temptation, and altruism. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5:320-330.

Sweeney, J.T. & Fisher, D.G. (1998). An examination of the vThoma S.J. & Dong Y. (2014). The Defining Issues Test of moral judgment development.

Behavioral Development Bulletin. ;19(3):55–61.

Thoma, S, Narvaez, D., Rest, J., & Derryberry, P. (1999). The distinctiveness of moral judgment.

Educational Psychology Review, 11 361-376.

Thomas, J.C. & Dunphy, S. (2011). Factors affecting moral judgment in business students.

Journal of the Indiana Academy of Social Sciences Vol. 17:130-153.

Tittle, C, & Welch, M. 1983. Religiosity and deviance: Toward a contingency theory of

constraining effects. Social Forces, 61: 653-682.

Turiel, E. (1983). The development of social knowledge: Morality and convention. Cambridge,

England: Cambridge University Press.

Vittle, S.J. & Paolillo, J.G. (2003). Consumer Ethics: The Role of Religiosity. Journal of

Business Ethics 46: 151-162.

Wahrman, J. (1981). The Relationship of dogmatism, religious affiliation and moral judgment

development. The Journal of Psychology, 108(2), 151-154.

Wallis, J. (2016). America's Original Sin: Racism, White Privilege, and the Bridge to a New

America. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Brazos Press.

Weaver, G. R., & Agle, B. R. 2002. Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: A

symbolic interactionist perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27: 77–97.

Whitely, J.M. (1982). Approaches to the evolution of character development. In J.M. Whitely

(ed.) Character Development in College Students. New York: Character Research Press, 111-172.

Ziedler D.I. & Schafer, L.E. (1984). Identifying mediating factors of moral reasoning in science

education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 21(1); 1-15.

Downloads

Published

31-08-2018

How to Cite

Thomas, J. (2018). Religion: Help or hindering Moral Judgment. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 6(8), 112–132. https://doi.org/10.31686/ijier.vol6.iss8.1126