Main Article Content
This paper presents the results from a study conducted in Tanzania to develop a dynamic mathematical model, tool for the environmental pollution control. This led to Modelling Nitrogen Transformation, Removal and Re-use of Treated water from Maturation Ponds for agriculture and agriculture. The study was conducted at the wastewater treatment system located in Mabogini Moshi in Kilimanjaro Region, North Eastern Tanzania.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
Bacca, R. G. and Arnett, R. C. (1976). A limnological model for Eutrophic lakes and impoundment. Battelle, Inc., Pacific Northwest laboratories, Richland.
Camargo Valero, M. A. and Mara, D. D. (2007). Nitrogen removal via Volatilization in Maturation Ponds. Seccio n de Ingenieri a Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia and School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, UK.
Chale, M. M. (1987). Plant biomass and nutrient levels of a tropical macrophyte (Cyprus papyrus L.) receiving domestic wastewater. Hydrobiol. Bull., 21: 167-170.
Cooper P.F (1999). â€œA Review of the Design and Performance of Vertical-Flowand Hybrid Reed Bed Treatment Systemsâ€. Wat Sci. Tech, Vol. 40, 1999, No 3, pp. 1-10.
Edwards, P. (1992). Re-use of Human Wastes in Aquaculture. Washington, D.C.: UNDP - World Bank Water and Sanitation Program.
Epworth, R. E. (2004). Ammonia Volatilization Rates from Primary Facultative and Maturation Wastewater Ponds in the United Kingdom (MSc. (Eng) thesis), University of Leeds, Leeds.
Ferrara, R. A. and Harlem an, D. R. F. (1980). Dynamic nutrient cycle model for Waste Stabilization Ponds. J. Envir. Enging. Div., ASCE, Vol. 106, No.1, pp. 37-55.
Ferrara, R. A. and Avci, C. B. (1982). Nitrogen dynamics in Waste Stabilization Ponds. JWPCF, Vol. 54, No.4, pp.361-369.
Fritz, J. J., Middleton, A. C. and Meredith, D. D. (1979). Dynamic process modelling of wastewater stabilization ponds. JWCF, Vol. 51, No. 11, pp. 2724-2743.
Halling-SÃ¸rensen, B. and JÃ¸rgensen, S.E. (1993). The removal of Nitrogen compounds from wastewater. Studies in Environmental Science 54, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Hammer, D. A. (1990). Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural. Lewis Publishers, Inc. USA.PP. 831.
JÃ¸rgensen, S. E., Nielsen, S. N. and JÃ¸rgensen, L. A. (1991). Handbook of ecological parameters and ecotoxicology, Elsevier Sc.Publishers, Amsterdam-London-New York-Tokyo, 1991.
JÃ¸rgensen, S.E. and Fath, Brian. D. (2011). Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling: Application in Environmental Management and Research. Fourth Edition, Elsevier B.V. Denmark and USA.
Kayomboâ€ , S. (1987). Re-use of Waste Stabilization Pond outlet for irrigation and aquaculture. Kibaha Ponds. Advanced Diploma dissertation, PHE Department, Ardhi Institute, Dar es Salaam.
Kayomboâ€ , S., Mbwette, T.S.A., Mayo, A. W., Katima, J. H. Y. and JÃ¸rgensen, S. E. (2000). Modelling diurnal variation of dissolved oxygen in waste stabilization ponds, Journal of Ecological Modelling, 127,(2000) 21-31.
Kayomboâ€ , S. (2001). Development of a holistic Ecological Model for Design of Facultative Waste Stabilization Ponds in Tropical Climates. PhD Thesis, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Institute for Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Kayomboâ€ , S., Mbwette, T., Mayo. A. W., Katima, J. and Jorgensen, S. E. (2002). Diurnal cycles of variation of physical-chemical parameters in waste stabilization ponds. Ecological Engineering, 18: 287-291.
Kayomboâ€ , S., Mbwette, T. S. A., Katima, J. and Jorgensen, S. E. (2003). Effects of substrate concentrations on the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and algae in secondary facultative ponds. Water Research, July 2003, Vol. 37, No. 12, p. 2937-2943.
Kiwanuka, S. and Kelderman, P. (2002). Coliform removal in a Tropical Integrated pilot Constructed Wetland.
National Water and Sewerage Corporation, P.O.Box 7053, Kampala, Uganda and the International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, IHE Delft P.O.Box 3015 DA Delft, The Netherlands.
Mara, D. D. and Cairncross, S. (1989). Guidelines for the use of excreta in agriculture and aquaculture-Measures for public health protection, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Mara, D. D. (1997). Design manual for waste stabilization ponds in India. Ministry of Environment and Forests. National River Conservation Directorate.
Mara, D. D. (2004). Domestic wastewater treatment in Developing Countries. Available at books.google.com (Accessed on 8th March, 2010).
Marais, G. V. R. (1970). Dynamic behaviour of oxidation ponds. Proceedings, 2nd International Symposium for wastewater Lagoon, Missouri Basin Engineering Health Council and Federal Water Quality Administration, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 15-46.
Mbwette, T. S. A., Katima, J.H.Y. and Jorgensen, S. E. (2001). Application of wetland systems and waste stabilization ponds in water pollution control. Published by IKR, Faculty of Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: In Mbwette, et al., (Eds) 2001 WSP Project, Dar es Salaam pp1-17.
Paredes, D., Kuschk, P., Mbwette, T.S.A, Stange, F., MÃ¼ller, R. A. and KÃ¶ser, H. (2007). New Aspects of microbial Nitrogen Transformation in the context of wastewater treatment-A Review Â© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. Eng. Life Sci,. 2007, Vol.7, No.1, 13-35.
Pearson, H. W., Mara, D. D., Mills, S.W. and Smallman, D. J. (1987 b). Factors determining algal population in Waste Stabilization Pond and the influence of algae on the performance. Water Science Technology, Vol. 19, No. 12, 131-140.
Reed, S. C. (1985). Nitrogen removal in Waste Stabilization Ponds. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation (JWPCF), 57 (1), 39-45.
Sekiranda, S. B. K. and Kiwanuka, S. (1998). A study of nutrient removal efficiency of Phragmites mauritianus in experimental reactors in Uganda. Hydroiologia, Vol. 364, pp. 83-89.
Senzia, A. M. (1999). Nitrogen Transformation and Removal in Facultative Ponds. A Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for degree of Masters of Science (Env). Engineering) of the University of Dar, pp. 15-30.
STELLA Â® v 9.1.4; Copyright Â© 1985-2010, isee systems inc. (purchased July 2011).
Tarimo, I. A. (2013). Modelling Nitrogen Transformation, Removal and Re-use of Treated Water in an Integrated Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP). PhD Thesis. Open University of Tanzania; Faculty of Science, Technology and Environmental Studies; Department of Environmental Studies, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (1985). Process Design Manual for Nitrogen Control. Office of Technology Transfer, Cincinnati, Ohio, Washington, DC.
WHO (1989). Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture. Technical report series 778.
WHO (2004). Maximum concentration level (MCL) of ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N) for discharge in natural waters. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (2006). Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater.
Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 176 pp.
Yohana, L. (2009). Potential Re-use of treated wastewater from a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland for aquaculture production: Modeling of Nitrogen dynamics and removal in aquaculture pond. Ph.D. (Water resources engineering) Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.