International Journal for Innovation Education and Research <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal for Innovation Education and Research(IJIER)</strong> presents the latest information and research papers concerning high technologies and modern sciences rotate International. The journal introduces up-to-date trend concerning the forefront researchers in all fields of Science and Technology, Business, and Economics, Social Science, and Humanities,&nbsp; Arts, and Engineering provides a spot to presents original and novel ideas, outlines some present research activities, forecasts some future research directions, discusses some research themes, and presents some high-level research papers.</p> International Educative Research Foundation publisher (IERFP) en-US International Journal for Innovation Education and Research 2411-3123 <p>Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.</p> <p>Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> Brain Tumor Boundary Segmentation of MR Imaging using Spatial Domain Image Processing <p style="text-align: justify;">Extracting information for medical purposes from magnetic resonance imaging is critically important for diagnostic and treatment plans. In this paper, a simple algorithm for tumor segmentation of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is introduced. The novelty incorporates, preserving fine details of the input image while detecting the boundary accurately. Tumor segmentation is carried out by set of pre processing steps followed by morphological operations. Rough contour of the tumor is localized to reduce the search space for the boundary. Line drawing algorithm in cooperated with pixel selection criteria is used to detect the accurate boundary. The algorithm is evaluated in terms of the performance and accuracy with radiologist labelled ground truth MRI scans. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides better identification with above 95% of accuracy, for clearly distinguishable tumors in relation to conventional contour detection methods.</p> Chandrika Malkanthi Maheshi B Dissanayake ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 1 9 Engaging students of Engineering & Technology in positive Group Dynamics using randomly generated Instant Virtual Group (IVG) quizzes <p>A quiz template is developed keeping in mind the group dynamics to engage and encourage group work activities among E&amp;T undergraduates. The Microsoft® Excel VBA programming was used to create random instant virtual groups (IVGs) and to select random questions. Although the IVG quiz selects group members randomly, yet the programming enables “controlled” reoccurrence keeping the entire class in alert state (i.e. allowing previous members from other groups to reappear and regroup). During the quiz, a small group cooperatively engaged working towards solution and at the end of each quiz question each group member is peer assessed by entire class following pre-set rules of engagement. At the end of quiz, the analyses are auto-plotted showing individual and group contributions flagging out, the best, good and the poor performers. The developed quiz workbook can be easily adopted for the reuse in any group assessment activity by simply changing the attendance list and question bank. The quiz template was used in piloting an epistemological study of various taught modules at different programme levels in various pathways of MEng-BEng and MSc Engineering programmes. The results of a survey analysing the effectiveness of such IVG quizzes using Chi-square test predicted an overall 71% net positive student’s responses with an average above 59% for various programme levels. Furthermore, the data analysis suggested that Level 4 and MSc cohorts comparatively need more tutor support in their group work as they have limited exposure to group dynamics. The significance of eye-contact and positioning of peers in-classroom randomised IVGs were also studied, which revealed that increasing separation between peers and their obscured locations obstructing their eye-contacts show adverse effects on group homotopy recommending maximum five members in an IVG creating effective cooperative communication. The random IVG quiz is tutor centred activity and mainly designed engaging students in-class active learning, and is suitable for small to medium class size of 30-35, nonetheless, large cohort size can be supported by splitting in batches.</p> Muhammad Yousif Jamro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 10 43 Online Education and Teaching Reform on Higher Education Development in China <p>Lifelong Education has changed the old view of the end of education, and promoted sustainable development of education, which is a strategic goal of social development. Lifelong education exhibit new features to further achieve educational equity with the technical support of MOOC/SPOC. In recent years, teaching reform of applied chemistry profession promoted by Department of higher education has gradually gone deeper, but there are still some problems and difficulties, such as contradictions among basic of specialized subject, teaching hours and teaching content, difficulties of lifting of the teaching content and improvement of teaching quality, which restrict teaching reform process. Teaching practice experience of SPOC in applied chemistry profession is simply introduced, proposing countermeasure for SPOC in college teaching applications designed to enhance the quality of teaching for reference.</p> Xin-Hong Wang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 44 50 Developing and Validating Standards for Clinical learning Environment at Nursing Faculty <p>There is an increasing interest and concern regarding the role of the learning environment in undergraduate nursing education. Nursing continuously associates with the technical-manual component, while being liable for the care with health of persons and with retaining their quality of life. So, obtaining clinical abilities is an element involved in the learning program of nursing courses.</p> Amira Abd El-Menem Ibrahim Wafaa Fathi ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 51 64 An Empirical study of the Forms of Exercising Censorship in the Daily Sudanese Political Newspapers <p>Forms of exercising censorship in the daily Sudanese political newspapers. An empirical study, from Jan 2017 to Jun 2017. The main objective to this study was identified forms of exercising censorship in the daily Sudanese political newspapers that may limit the freedom in the vocational work of Sudanese journalists in the political news sections. The descriptive method is used to describe the situation and analyze the results. Observation and questionnaire were used as tools of this study. 340 samples were chosen from journalists working in the Sudanese newspaper institutions, representing intended sample from field study community. The results were: censorship is applied in the Sudan’s newspapers; self-censorship topped the forms of censorship, the importance of censorship exercised by the editor-in- chief, and the journalists participating in the questionnaire stated that the importance of censorship is for refrain them from committing breaches.</p> Haliema Mohammed Suleiman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 65 84 The perception of the economic agents on the quality and the control in the certification of wines in Geographical Indications (GIs) <p>Since 1992 geographical indications have become a reference for product quality, especially in the food sector in the European Community. The identification of the products with the place of production was a strategy used in antiquity, mainly to identify the origin of the wines, being this the pioneer product. The research was developed in the demarcated wine regions of Portugal. This country is considered the birthplace and the pioneer in the regulation of Geographical Indication (GI). The first demarcated region was that of the Douro, where Port wine is produced. Seals identifying the products of the region demarcated for distribution to producers undergo a certification process, described in the Specification Manuals, formulated according to the rules established in the GI, which each producer must follow. Therefore, the research, sought to identify the process of certification of products originated from Portuguese GIs in Portugal, and the perception of economic agents on the control, good practices and quality, in relation to the distribution and control of certification stamps. The methodology used was field, documentary and bibliographic research by the use of questionnaires. For the economic agents, the quality of the products is satisfactory, not requiring changes taking into account the way in which it is being distributed and controlled.</p> Fátima Regina Zan Manuel Luis Tibério Suzana Leitão Russo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 85 98 Application of LEGO Mindstorms Kits for Teaching Mechatronics Engineering <p>One of the major educators’ challenges is to teach the theoretical lessons with practical examples that can be taught in the classroom or teaching laboratories. The application of these examples will face a major problem for students in engineering: the difficulty of understanding and seeing how a mechatronic device works in everyday life. This requires the use of tools that enable the construction of different low cost prototypes to assist in student learning. Another challenge to educators is the need to motivate students during the lessons and to present models that students can make and develop on their own. Within this context this paper presents a pedagogic proposition based on the use of LEGO Mindstorms kits to teach practical lab activities in a mechatronics engineering course. The objective is to develop teaching methodologies with the use of these LEGO kits in order to motivate the students and also to promote a higher interdisciplinarity, by proposing projects that unify different disciplines. Thus, the paper is divided into three parts according to the educational experiences implemented in the course of mechatronics engineering at the Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil. The first part presents the use of the kits in robotics discipline. The second part presents the use of the virtual kits in the Computer Aided Design discipline with zero-cost. The third part presents a multi-disciplinary project EDROM in mechatronics using LEGO kits.</p> Rogério Sales Gonçalves ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 99 113 Modified Version of Aronovsky Model for Predicting the Performance of Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoirs <p>In this work the mathematical model developed by Aronovsky et. al. for predicting rates of free-water imbibition in naturally fractured oil reservoirs has been modified. The proposed model allows prediction of fractional oil recovery by spontaneous water imbibition in core samples with high accuracy.</p> <p>The proposed modification involves development of an empirical correlation for the reservoir rock/fluid system-dependent parameter (<strong>l</strong>) used in Aronofsky model and defined as rate of convergence. The key reservoir rock and fluid physical properties considered in this work include absolute permeability of the rock, porosity, initial water saturation, interfacial tension between oil and water (IFT), viscosity of oil, viscosity of water, and length of core sample.</p> <p>The accuracy of the modified model is evaluated using the results of laboratory imbibition tests on nine limestone core samples. All imbibition tests were conducted at 90 ° C. The absolute per cent error based on laboratory versus calculated values of (<strong>l</strong>) is found to range between 0.334 and 3.88.</p> <p>The proposed model may also be applied for predicting fractured reservoir performance on field scale by simply replacing the core length by matrix block length when the block is totally immersed in water. Additional experimental work and/or field observations would be necessary to verify the reliability of the proposed modification.</p> Hazim H. Al-Attar Essa Lwisa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 114 123 Age Perceptions, Knowledge, and Preventive Behaviors Regarding Cervical Cancer: Analysis from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). <p>Cervical cancer is considered to be the third most common type of cancer in women, and the second largest cause of deaths in women. Its toll is greatest in population that lack screening programs to detect precursor lesions (Roden, 2006). Almost all cervical cancer is caused by HPV (Human Papillomavirus), a common virus that is spread through sexual intercourse (Roden, 2006). It is widely believed among experts that most women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer today have not had regular pap smears or they have not followed up on abnormal Pap smear results. But the question is how knowledgeable are women regarding this deadly disease which is curable when detected early. We used a national representative sample of women in an exploratory analysis to shed light on how age differences characterize the perceptions, knowledge and prevention behaviors of cervical cancer. The five classes of women we investigated were women ages 18 – 34; 35 – 49; 50 – 64; 64 – 74; and 75+. The results indicate that women ages 50 – 64 were the most opinionated regarding the characteristics of cervical cancer.</p> Samuel Luogon Dolo Julian Rayford ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 124 132 A Sinusoidal Temperature Model for Major Cities in Georgia <p>One of the periodic natural phenomena in life is temperature patterns.&nbsp; A mathematical model based on periodicity called a sinusoidal temperature model has been formulated to describe and estimate the maximum and minimum temperature characteristics for the major cities in Georgia. The four parameters in the proposed sinusoidal temperature model that are used to predict or estimate temperature patterns are based on a thirty-year monthly means of the maximum and minimum temperature of cities in Georgia obtained from; The model shows a high level of accuracy in predicting maximum and minimum temperature for major cities in Georgia.</p> Samuel Luogon Dolo Meagan Bridges Jessica Foster ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 133 139 Educational Leadership and Supervision’s Administration for Successful Schools <p>The purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical observation of SuperVision, a new name for a new strategy of educational leadership, as well as to utilize the theory of developmental supervision.&nbsp; Glickman, Gordon, and Gordon (2001) state that the definition of SuperVision is identical to leadership for the improvement of instruction.&nbsp; Education leaders view that supervision is essential for successful schools.&nbsp; They also believe that it is crucial to improving supervisory behaviors of school leaders.&nbsp; Therefore, the researcher uses clinical supervision as its method to examine its practices of utilizing the theory of developmental supervision.&nbsp; The findings of this study are: developmental supervision may improve teachers instruction; the supervisory behaviors may improve teachers ability of problem-solving and decision making, and the supervisor may facilitate teachers as life-long learners.</p> HUI-TZU WU ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 140 152 Violence Against Women and Girls <p>The purpose of the study was to highlight the factors associated with violence against women and girls and how they can benefit from therapy. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the factors associated with the occurrence of violence, determining the effectiveness of therapy in dealing with survivors of violence, exploring factors influencing or blocking effectiveness of therapy. A cross sectional research design was used in which questionnaires, an interviewing guide, focus group discussion and psychological assessment scale were used to collect study data. A sample of 75 women and girls was purposively selected from health facilities, counselling centres, chief camps, police station, NGOs and CBOs within Kibra Constituency. All respondents were females aged 18 years and above. The findings showed that all the respondents (100%) had been exposed to violence. The respondents who reported physical abuse were 30%, sexual abuse was reported by 10%, psychological and emotional abuse was reported by 16%, financial coercion was reported by 15%, neglect of children and duty by 13%, and verbal assault was reported by 16%. &nbsp;Further, the results showed that the most common victims of violence are expectant mothers and children who are under the care of irresponsible persons. The most reported people to perpetrate violence were cited to be men. The responses given by the respondents as factors that trigger violence are: Previous assaults (61%), cultural expectations (61%), alcohol abuse and other drugs (49%), poor communication skills (49%), poor problem solving skills (49%), perpetrator outstretched demands on resources (49%), infidelity(37%), unemployment (37%), peer pressure (37%), frustration emanating from blocked goals (24%), childlessness (24%) and&nbsp; personality traits (12%). Violence against women and girls impact negatively on their lives. The most common negative impact mentioned are depression by 75 respondents, children suffering cited by 65 respondents, family disintegration cited by 56 respondents, non-productivity, physical injury, and anxiety respectively cited &nbsp;by 46 respondents. The survivors of violence have knowledge of where they can access help in order to cope with the consequences of violence. Of the 75 respondents, 75 of them said that counselling is very helpful. Perseverance is another coping mechanism mentioned by 75 respondents. Separation and keeping quite are strategies mentioned by 65 respondents. Going to hospital is another support and help available mentioned by 56 respondents. The respondents who opted for spiritual intervention were 47 while those who opted to start a business for sustainability were 38. Those who preferred sharing with significant others as a coping mechanism were 28. Last but not least, 18 women indicated that support groups are helpful in dealing with violence. The study recommended that women and girls should be empowered financially and policies put into place to curb violence. The government and other stakeholders should partner to support women and girls to overcome violence in the society.</p> Haniel Nyaga Gatumu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 153 176 Textual Enhancement, Input Processing and Presentation-Practice-Production in College English Grammar Teaching in China <p>Based on the input processing theory and output hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition, and employing quantitative and qualitative methods, this study investigates the effects of Textual Enhancement (TE), Input Processing Instruction (PI) and Presentation-Practice-Production (3P), and tries to compare the initial learning and retention effect on the acquisition of unreal conditionals in Chinese college English classrooms. The research findings are as follows: 1) Both PI and 3P are effective. TE is effective in initial learning but falls short for retention effect. There is significant difference between the TE, PI and 3P groups. 2) In initial learning, 3P has the best effect based on learners’ mean score, followed by PI and TE, but there is no significant difference between PI and 3P. There is significant difference between 3P and TE, PI and 3P. 3) With regard to the retention effect, 3P and PI work better than TE. And there is no significant difference between 3P and PI. The research findings indicate that explicit explanation about language structures plays an effective and necessary role in English learning in the Chinese context. English teachers are suggested to involve the learners with grammar through meaningful activities such as structured input activities.</p> Guang Shi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-31 2017-10-31 5 10 177 193