International Journal for Innovation Education and Research <p><strong><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/public/site/images/editor/logo-ijier.png"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International</strong> <strong>Journal </strong>for<strong> Innovation Education and Research (IJIER)</strong> is a high-quality open access peer-reviewed research journal that is published by <strong>International Educative Research Foundation and Publisher (IERFP)</strong>. <strong>IJIER</strong> providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical and theoretical research papers, case studies, literature reviews and book reviews. <strong>IJIER</strong> welcomes and acknowledges high quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review papers, literature reviews, book reviews, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, a technical note from researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students from all over the world.</p> International Educative Research Foundation Publisher (IERFP) en-US International Journal for Innovation Education and Research 2411-3123 <p style="text-align: justify;">Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> Traditional Birth Attendants and Childbirth in Kenya: A Case of Kitui West Sub County <p>The first objective of this research was to explore the role played by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) during pregnancy and childbirth. The second objective was to establish perspectives of pregnant women regarding the role played by TBAs during childbirth. Eight TBAs out of 12 were selected using simple random sampling technique. These 8 TBAs were drawn from the environs of 10 sampled health facilities. To calculate the sample size for the pregnant women to be interviewed about their perspectives towards TBAs from the 10 sampled health facilities , this formula was used, 1230 x 15/100=184.5 rounded up to 185. According to 2009 census, the population of women at child bearing age (15 – 49 years) was 1230 in Kitui West Sub-County (KNBS et al.; 2009). The final sample size for pregnant women was 187 as shown under the discussion on sampling techniques. An in depth individual interview guide was used to gather information from the 8 TBAs and 165 pregnant women. Unstructured interview guide was used to gather information from 22 respondents who formed focus group discussion (FGD). To make a meaning from the raw data, it was transcribed and emerging themes and patterns according the objective of the study were picked. The Chi-square test analysis showed that more than a half of the women preferred to deliver at home assisted by a TBA. (χ2=1.572; df=2; p=0.036) where p=0.05. This was confirmed by the fact that 37 percent out of 135 respondents who attended ANC clinic and 90 percent out of 30 respondents who did not attend ANC clinic delivered at home assisted by TBAs.</p> PASCHALIA MBUTU DR. WANJIRU GICHUHI DR. GRACE NYAMONGO ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 01 18 Physical Preconception of Primary Education Pupils <p>During their preschool age children discover natural phenomena in their environment. In their consciousness, they form the basic physical concepts based on experience. Their ideas can be right, but they can also be wrong because they take into consideration only what they see and thus, they come up with wrong ideas or misconceptions. At the very beginning of their primary education, teachers of class teaching directly witness their ideas related to basic physical concepts through various subjects: mathematics, natural sciences, art and physical education. Frequently, neither teachers nor their pupils consider these notions, thus their wrong ideas remain firmly rooted and present a barrier to the adoption of the correct physical ideas. Research of basic concepts related to motion, space and time was carried out as part of the workshop Class Teaching Course Open Days at the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Education of the University of Mostar. The sample consisted of pupils of primary education of Herzegovina-Neretva and West-Herzegovinian Cantons. It has shown that pupils have the correct ideas about many physical phenomena, but it has also shown the presence of intuitive ideas which are not in accordance with physical ideas and need to be corrected in time</p> slavica Brkić ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 19 32 Exploring Traits of High-Performing, High-Poverty Schools <p>Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in pressure placed on schools across the nation due to high-stakes accountability policies (Klar, 2014). It comes as no surprise that low performing schools feel constant pressure to raise the measured academic performance of all students. Rarely, do low-performing schools who have overcome challenging circumstances in order to increase academic achievement, get spotlighted. Educators need to identify the common factors attributed to increased student achievement. This can be achieved by examining the lessons and examples of high-performing schools so that all schools can succeed regardless of circumstances.</p> Jerilou J. Moore Aubrey Womack ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 33 40 Improving Pupils’ Genuine Love for Reading and Critical Thinking Using the Strategies of the Four-Pronged Approach <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>This study aims at improving the language skills of pupils, particularly their Genuine Love for Reading (GLR) and Critical Thinking Skills (CTS), which are two components of the Four-Pronged Approach to English language teaching. The other two components are Grammar and Oral Language Development (GOLD) and Transfer Stage (TS) but they were not included in this study. The researcher conducted the study using the pre-test—post-test quasi-experimental research design in which fifth grade pupils were divided into two groups: the control group exposed to the regular teaching approach and the experimental group exposed to the instructional strategies of the four-pronged approach for 78 sessions. Prior to the conduct of the interventions, a pre-test was administered to determine the pupils’ level of GLR and CT. The researcher also prepared lessons plans that followed the instructional plan of the four-pronged approach, which were used during the 78 sessions. Results revealed that the experimental group’s Genuine Love for Reading (GLR) and Critical Thinking Skills (CTS) improved significantly as compared to those in the control group. The findings suggest that the strategies of the Four-Pronged Approach help enhance in English language abilities of pupils. Relevant recommendations are forwarded in light of the outcomes of the study.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><em>: </em>English as a Second Language, Language Skills, Genuine Love for Reading, Critical Thinking, Four-Pronged Approach</p> Antonieta Sevilla Palasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 41 51 Securitization to reduce CO2 emission <p>We consider CO<sub>2</sub> emission-backed securities designed as a securitization based on national CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. We constructed the securities using data from “CO<sub>2</sub> Emissions from Fuel Combustion” of the International Energy Agency. The securities consist of several tranches with specific coupon rates determined by each nation’s probability of threshold (or target emission) achievement. These securities can be traded in financial markets without the interference of other countries and would give countries an incentive to reduce their CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. This study also suggests a financial environmental cleanliness measure for each country using the concept of “green spread” for single-tranche securities.</p> DongHoon Shin Changhui Choi Changki Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 52 76 Innovative Teaching Design of Topology based on Information Technology <p>Information technology as a means of teaching has gradually integrated into the curriculum, and the corresponding teaching design is also closely followed. The ability training of undergraduate students in mathematics should be permeated in the classroom teaching, and the use of rich Internet to collect mass teaching resources can effectively promote the enthusiasm of students' learning, which is beneficial to the formation of students' innovative consciousness and practical ability. This paper discusses the innovative teaching design of topology.</p> Hongkui Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 77 79 Information and Communication Technologies in the Training of Health and Education Professionals <p>The training of health and education professionals is by various sources of information and specific actions. The content analysis that focus on knowledge of these professionals to empower themselves reveals very encouraging results, as the knowledge they possess. With this, the objective is to consider the information sources in the context of information and communication technologies as tools to aid health professionals and education in their professional training. From this context, the quick access to the right information for these professionals is one of the most efficient ways to combat drugs and its consequences. The text describes the influence of Information and Communication Technologies in the universe of health and education. This presence is decisive for the process of professional training.</p> Maykon Anderson Pires de Novais Márcia Mello Costa De Liberal Paola Zucchi Solange Aparecida Nappo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 80 89 Enhancing Disaster Preparedness through Participatory Activities in a School in Malaysia <p>Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of flood slide presentation and a child-friendly participatory approach using the HVCA (Hazard, Vulnerability and Capacity) Assessment adapted from Plan International Child-Centred Disaster Risk Reduction on students’ preparedness for flood. This study used instruction on flood knowledge and preparedness coupled with participatory teaching sessions on DRR. Qualitative information was gathered using classroom observations and interviews. The findings indicated that school curriculum did not cover disaster awareness and these students in this study felt more prepared for flood after an intervention that consisted of flood knowledge and preparedness slide presentation and HVCA participatory sessions.</p> Foong Sin Lam Yuk F Huang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 90 99 Group Obedience and Its Impact on Academic Counseling Among Students <p>This study sought to establish the impact of group obedience on academic counseling by comparing boys and girls in public secondary schools in Tharaka- Nithi County, Kenya. Causal- comparative research design was employed in this study. The accessible population was 9,419 form three students from public secondary schools in the county. A total of 12 schools were sampled using stratified sampling technique while random sampling was used to select 29 student respondents from each of the sampled schools. A sample of 348 respondents was involved in this study. Data was collected through a students’ questionnaire. Validity of the instrument was ensured through judgments of research experts and scholars in the related area of study. Reliability of the instrument was estimated through a pilot study and the minimum threshold for reliability of the instrument was set at alpha 0.7. A reliability coefficient of 0.81 was got from the students’ questionnaire. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were used to analyze data, while inferential statistics of a t- test was used to test the hypothesis. Hypothesis was tested at a significant level of alpha 0.05. Data analysis was aided by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 for windows. A summary was used to organize qualitative data. It is recommended that teacher counselors intensify academic counseling programs by organizing sessions for various groups among students regardless of gender on how group obedience impacts on academic counseling.</p> Elosy Nyambura Riungu Susan Muthoni Kinyua ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 100 108 The Influence of Professional Development Training on Headteachers’ Financial Management Skills in Public Primary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya <p>Financial management skills of primary school headteachers has been established to contribute to performance of such schools. However, in Kiambu County, such success has not been registered despite the numerous professional development trainings school managers have undergone and still undergo. Thus, this study investigated influence of headteachers’ professional development training on financial management skills in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study adopted mixed methods approach and thus apply explanatory sequential design. Questionnaires were used to collect data from headteachers and their deputies whereas interviews from staffing officer and sub-county director of education. Data analysis began by identifying common themes. The relevant information was broken into phrases. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically along the study objectives and presented in narrative forms whereas quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics SPSS Version 23 and presented using tables and charts. The study established that training of headteachers can be conducted in different modes which include; on-job, off-job, just-in-time training, mentoring and networking. These forms of training models enhance headteachers’s record-keeping, investment, pricing and costing and budgeting skills. Suitability of training materials enhances headteachers’s record-keeping, investment, pricing and costing and budgeting skills. From the study findings, it is evident that the most important variable in such success is a well-prepared and capable trainer or facilitator. Evaluation of relevance of the training curriculum enhances headteachers’s acquisition of record-keeping, investment, pricing and costing and budgeting skills. The study thus, recommends that training institutions should design and plan quality integrated training programmes to match headteachers work schedule. Training materials need to be specifically designed to suit the content of training programmes to enhance faster understanding of concepts to be learnt. In other words, the training material should be redesigned to also focus on acquisition of financial skills for effective investment and business management. Trainers’ need to update their skills to match the changing times such as adopting use of ICT and attitude change towards headteachers empowerment. Training institutions and trainers need to plan for quarterly and semi-annual evaluation of training programmes since they are effective in ascertaining of the efficacy of such programmes.</p> ONUNGA DOLLY ANNE ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 109 129 Board Involvement on Earnings Per Share (EPS): Evidence from A Developing Economy <p>This research aims to investigate the effect of board involvement on earnings per share. The current study uses the correlation and regression models to analyze publicly available data for a sample of 69 firms quoted in the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the fiscal year 2011. This indicates that the research made use of cross sectional data. Several diagnostic tests have been applied to justify the validity of the results. The empirical investigations reveal that director’ shareholdings, board size and board skills have significant impact on performance. Good corporate governance standards are very essential to every organization and should be encouraged and practiced for the interest of the investors, shareholders and other stakeholders. Is worthy of note, that from a developing country like Nigeria, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper is the first of its kind and offers evidence on the effect of board involvement on earnings per share. The paper provides useful information that is of great value to policy makers, academia, corporate firms and other stakeholders.</p> TOCHUKWU CHRISTIAN NWOKWU PRADEEP M. P. DHARMADASA PRASATH D. L. M. RATHNASINGHA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 130 141 Innovation in peanut productive chain in Brazil between 1996-2016 <p>Innovation enables organizations to achieve increased competitiveness, through increased productivity, organization and marketing, with the possible consequence of opening new markets. The case of agro-industrial chains it’s not different, in which the innovations along the chain have repercussion in the whole sector. In this way, this article aims to analyze the contributions of innovation in the groundnut production chain between 1996 and 2016, which went from culture with an import profile in the late 1990’s to the export profile in the 2000’s. It was used a qualitative approach and a descriptive research based on bibliographic research in databases, such as FAOSTAT and CONAB. Through the research it was possible to verify that the technological, marketing and organizational innovations were of great contribution to the recovery of the groundnut culture.</p> Thiago Reis Ana Elisa Bressan Smith Lourenzani Joao Guilherme Camargo Ferraz Machado ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 142 154 ANALYSIS OF SALIVARY CORTISOL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH BURNOUT DIMENSIONS IN PRISON WORKERS <p>Workers in the prison system experience stress at high levels in their daily lives, so they become prone to the development of the Burnout Syndrome. In order to evaluate the occupational stress, the most sensitive and of easy access biochemical method is salivary cortisol. <strong>Aim:</strong> to evaluate the concentration of salivary cortisol in prison workers and to relate it to the Burnout Syndrome. <strong>Methodology</strong>: a cross-sectional and analytical study with 240 prison workers from the 3rd Penitentiary Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil, covering 8 counties and 10 prison houses. The instruments of data collection used were a sociodemographic characterization form, the <em>Maslach Burnout Inventory</em> and some salivary samples. The data collection period was from April to June 2017. <strong>Results:</strong> It was observed an increase in the dimensions of burnout concomitant with the increase of salivary cortisol levels in the research participants. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The population studied experienced occupational stress evidenced by the use of the burnout and salivary cortisol instrument analysis, which is an important physiological indicator.</p> Sabrina Azevedo Wagner Benetti Cíntia Beatriz Goi Carolina Renz Pretto Cátia Matte Dezordi Marcos Benetti Daiane Raquel Steiernagel Pâmela Vione Morin Eniva Miladi Fernandes Stumm ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 155 163 THE DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY SUPPORT AGENTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION WITH PHYSICALLY DISABLED STUDENTS <p>The aim of this study was to analyze the difficulties encountered by support agents in special education with students with disabilities. The methodology was qualitative and exploratory. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and analyzed through thematic content analysis. The participants of the research were 12 support agents in special education in elementary education who carry out their activities with students with physical disabilities in a municipal school network. In relation to the difficulties encountered by special education support agents, the following categories emerged: Training of human resources; Material and technological resources; Infrastructure and Accessibility; Teamwork and Inclusion only in theory. It was concluded that there is a shortage of resources in this scenario, and may influence the quality of education offered to students with disabilities.</p> Fabiola Hermes Chesani Dionei Alves Dos Santos Claudete Santos Demetrio João Pedro Euriques Batista João Pedro Euriques Batista Matheulli Guilherme Corrêa de Andrade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 164 178 Preliminary Study to Find Occurrence and Dynamics of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Nuwara wewa and Nachchaduwa wewa, Two Man-made Reservoirs in Sri Lanka <p>Bloom of cyanobacteria in water bodies causes devastating problems to the ecosystem and humans when they depend on these waters for drinking purpose. Microcystin and nodularin, produced by some cyanobacteria, are toxic for human and many other aquatic organisms. Nuwara wewa and Nachchaduwa wewa are two important reservoirs supplying water for drinking purpose in addition to agricultural use. Therefore, preliminary study was conducted to evaluate these reservoirs for the presence of toxic cyanobacteria and their dynamics is of importance to take proper measures to control cyanobacterial growth and to ensure supply of quality water for human drinking purpose. Water samples were collected for 12 months from both reservoirs and physic-chemicals parameters of water were also recorded. Correlations between the physico-chemical parameters of water and the cyanobacterial density were established. Toxic cyanobacteria were isolated and identified using conventional and molecular methods. 16S rRNA gene and mcy-A gene were targeted for molecular identification using PCR. Cyanobacterial density had strong positive correlations with some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen in both reservoirs. These parameters can be used as good indicators to evaluate the condition these reservoirs with respect to cyanobacterial bloom. Some cyanobacterial isolates recovered from both reservoirs harboured <em>mcy-A</em> gene, showing the potential of microcystin production.</p> Prathiba Aruni Weerasinghe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-31 2018-05-31 6 5 179 191