International Journal for Innovation Education and Research http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier <p><strong><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/public/site/images/editor/logo-ijier.png"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International</strong> <strong>Journal </strong>for<strong> Innovation Education and Research (IJIER)</strong> is a high-quality open access peer-reviewed research journal that is published by <strong>International Educative Research Foundation and Publisher (IERFP)</strong>. <strong>IJIER</strong> providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical and theoretical research papers, case studies, literature reviews and book reviews. <strong>IJIER</strong> welcomes and acknowledges high quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review papers, literature reviews, book reviews, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, a technical note from researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students from all over the world.</p> International Educative Research Foundation Publisher (IERFP) en-US International Journal for Innovation Education and Research 2411-3123 <p style="text-align: justify;">Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT: MANAGEMENT MODELS AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL POSSIBILITIES http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1041 <p>Strategic alignment is a term used since the 1940s, in recent decades it has also been used in the management area. The objective of this study was to analyze the approaches of different researchers on the concept of strategic alignment and its use in companies. For this, a bibliometric research was carried out followed by bibliographical analysis, using the base of periodicals Web Of Science. The bibliometric research provided parameters and systematized the selection of articles related to the subject, as well as helped in the organization of the data. The bibliographic analysis allowed to identify concepts of strategic alignment and its applications in the most diverse sectors and business situations and how they can be used by all types of companies today.</p> Ilka Maria Escaliante Bianchini Suzana Leitão Russo Robelius De Bortoli Liária Nunes da Silva José Augusto Andrade Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 01 14 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1041 Evaluation of the Quality of Learning Objects in the Health Care Area: Evidence of Validity and Internal http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1110 <p>In Brazil, distance education plays an important role in the training of human resources in the health area. In this context, learning objects, understood as modular digital resources used to support learning, are widely used tools in the process of knowledge construction, although not all are valid resources. To date, the literature does not have a specific instrument in Portuguese to evaluate the quality of learning objects in the health area. In order to fill this gap, this paper describes the search for evidence of validity of internal structure and convergent validity of Equalis-OAS: Scale to evaluate the quality of learning objects in the health area. For the study, Equalis-OAS was applied to professionals and undergraduate students from the different areas of Health Sciences, all participants taking a continuing education health course about Food and Nutrition in Primary Health Care. One thousand and sixty-nine volunteers participated in the study. An Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed that the instrument, which has as its construct “Quality of learning objects for the health area”, covers three dimensions: “Intrinsic Concepts of Learning Objects in the Health Area”, “Educational Characteristics” and “Presentation”. The final instrument consisted of 41 items, which explained 66.8% of the total variance of the scores. The scale had excellent internal consistency indexes (overall scale: α = 0.979; “Intrinsic Concepts of Learning Objects”: α = 0.927; “Educational”: α = 0.947; “Presentation”: α = 0.977). Regarding convergent validation, Pearson’s correlation indicated that Equalis-OAS had a moderate correlation (r=0.59, p&lt;0.01) with LORI version 2.0, translated into Portuguese, an instrument for the evaluation of learning objects in general (i.e., not specific to the health area). These results indicate that Equalis-OAS is an instrument that presents good evidence of validity, indicating its use in the context of health education and research.</p> CAROLINA STURM TRINDADE Sérgio Kakuta Kato Otavio Pereira Davila Ana Célia da Silva Siqueira Roberto Nunes Umpierre Ana Paula Borngraber Correa Alessandra Dahmer Caroline Tozzi Reppold ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 15 27 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1110 PROTECTION OF USERS: AN ANALYSIS FROM PRODUCT AND PROCESS PATENTS http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1116 <p>This research seeks to describe the differences in patent filing of products and processes and the protection of the user. The research is characterized as descriptive exploratory of applied nature, with qualitative approach, having as method the technique of documentary research and documentary analysis. Normative Instructions 30 and 31 of the INPI and Law 9.279/96 were used. In the analysis it can be observed that process patents have a greater size than product patents, the state of the art is one of the main points of the writing of patents, drawings, flowcharts, organization charts and diagrams are present in process patents. It is concluded that the article raises a discussion about the importance of registration of patent processes, especially regarding the issues related to the user.</p> Washington Sales do Monte Robelius De-Bortoli Sadraque Eneas de Figueiredo Lucena ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 40 54 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1116 Purpose of the use of technologies in the contemporary models of Corporate University http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1117 <p>This paper aims to identify the purpose of the use of technologies in the contemporary models of corporate university: Stakeholder University (SU) and Networked Corporate University (NCU)<em>.</em> To accomplish it, we carried out a systematic search in the main electronic bases of scientific documents, categorizing the studies by means of the revised Bloom's Taxonomy. This search enabled to distinguish the purpose of the use of technologies in corporate universities, such as the purpose of integration between different stakeholders in relation to knowledge. The research highlights the Corporate University in addition to an environment of education; but an area of innovation in which the integration of stakeholders, university and organization constitutes an important interaction and sharing networks. By identifying the technological characteristics and tools, it points out new approaches of technological integration in the mediation between stakeholders in order to promote networked learning. That is, to remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create (Bloom's Taxonomy), but, especially, to generate value from these relationships. The conclusion is that the distance education technologies, the knowledge media, and the engineering and knowledge management tools arise as enablers of the purpose of creating technologies to generate shared knowledge and stakeholder interaction, according to the models of SU and NCU.</p> Solange Maria da Silva, PhD Gertrudes A. Dandolini, PhD Patricia de Sá Freire, PhD João Artur de Souza, PhD Willian Rochadel Aline de Brittos Valdati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 55 78 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1117 Enhancement of Chemistry Self-efficacy of Students using Computer Aided Instruction among Secondary School Learners in Kenya http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1119 <p>Chemisrty self-efficacy is to do with desire or confidence to perform well in Chemistry and has been predominantly low among secondary school students in Kenya, and many other developing countries. The study investigated the effect of computer aided instruction (CAI) on Chemisrty self-efficacy of students as compared toconventional methods(CM). The study adopted solomon Four-Group, Non-equivalent Control Group Design which emphasises Quasi-Experimental design. A sample of 174 Form Two secondary school Chemistry students in Tharaka Nithi County in Kenya was used. Four schools were purposively samlped and randomly assigned as either Experimental Groups or Control Groups. The students of experimental groups were taught chemisrty through CAI while the control groups were taught using Conventional Methods on the topics "the structure of the Atom, the periodic table and chemical families" for six weeks. Data was colected using students self-efficacy questionnaire(SSEQ) and was administered before and after exposure of intervention (CAI). Both descriptive and inferential statistics, in particular, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that the students taught through Computer aided instruction obtained significantly higher chemisrty self-efficacy scores than the students taught using conventional methods. Further, the study revealed that girls obtained higher self-efficacy scores than thier counterpart boys when taught using CAI. Thus, Chemistry teachers should adopt CAI in thier teaching to help in enhancing Chemisrty self-efficacy of students, and by extention enhance performance in Chemistry.</p> judith kinya julius ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 79 90 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1119 SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOURIST ATTRACTION SITES IN SOUTHERN GEO-POLITICAL ZONE OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1122 <p>Tourism is mainly seen as a growth industry since the flow of tourists to different tourist destinations contributes to economic growth. The importance of an area as a tourist delight is a function of three major factors; accessibility, natural and cultural attraction and social amenities. Southern Adamawa Geo-Political Zone has a wide range of such attractions, and is easily accessible to the state capital, Yola, where social amenities are concentrated, a common characteristic of Nigerian urban centers. The research therefore, assess the spatial distribution of tourist attraction sites using Global Positioning System (GPS) to establish the coordinates of the sites, and the tourist attraction sites were identified on the Google Earth. Notable tourist attraction site identified are the Farai festival, Lamurde warm spring, Kiri dam and resort, Gumti park and Vunom wrestling festival among others. These sites are easily accessible by a motor able road over a short distance to the state capital Yola, which houses most social amenities most importantly are the hospitality and catering service. The study recommend among others, the upgrading of facilities and infrastructures in and around these attraction sites, creation of tourism database to be linked to a website to showcase these sites to the rest of the world</p> Alfred Dika Mshelia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 91 98 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1122 Construction of soil moisture and irrigation IoT monitoring system using Project Based Learning http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1123 <p>This article describes a project developed using principles of Project Based Learning (PBL) and aims to use an embedded system for soil monitoring, thus measuring soil moisture and implementing automatic irrigation, as well as, the temperature and humidity of the environment. The configuration data for irrigation time control and the lower and upper limits of soil moisture percentage can be adjusted through a PHP page, where also the monitoring of the variation of soil moisture through a graph can be done in real time. The proposed project is divided into two steps using PBL. Phase one focuses on developing a circuit with sensors capable of doing measurement of ambient parameters and soil moisture, and phase two, on developing an irrigation system to control soil moisture, both using Internet of Things (IoT) concepts.</p> Sandro Cesar SIlveira Juca Savio Lopes Rabelo Diego Lima Carvalho Gonçalves Vinícius Ferreira Silva Renata Imaculada Soares Pereira Solonildo Almeida da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 99 111 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1123 Religion: Help or hindering Moral Judgment http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1126 <p>The goal of helping students to become ethical citizens is a concern of college educators. There have been a number of factors, which seem to contribute to this goal. Religious inclination is one factor that researchers have considered. We would expect religious people to be highly ethical. However, research suggests that is not the case. In fact, some research suggests that religion can inhibit moral growth. In most cases, religiosity negatively affected moral development.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jim Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 112 132 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1126 Low cost Device for Online Monitoring of Noise in Libraries using Internet of Things http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1127 <p>The present paper describes the development and practical application of an embedded system that performs the online monitoring of sound noises in a library of an educational institution using Internet of Things. The main objective of the proposed project is to record sound levels in closed areas and to alert users when allowed limits were exceeded. Thus, it was used a set of cost-effective tools, like free software and low-cost technologies. Raspberry Pi, PIC microcontroller and a sound sensor module were applied in the first phase. In the second phase, only ESP8266 microcontroller with sound sensor were used. Results of these two implemented phases are discussed. It was observed that both developed embedded systems, which use Internet of Things concept, contributed satisfactorily offering a better space for concentration.</p> Antonio Leandro Martins Candido Sandro César Silveira Jucá Renata Imaculada Soares Pereira Paulo Marvin de Brito Lima Solonildo Almeida da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 133 144 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1127 Robotics education in public schools using recycled materials and principles of Project-based Learning http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1128 <p>The proposed project aims to implement an educational robotic teaching project in public schools. The developed robot uses the concepts of meta-recycling, which aims to encourage the sustainability and the reuse of electronic components to minimize garbage generation. The teaching technique used is the methodology of Project-based Learning (PBL), defined by developing projects based on a question, problem or task, which motivate students to create solutions applying theory to practice. PBL uses collaborative problem solving to significantly increase student interest and involves analyzing each student learning evolution independently. The project also promotes interdisciplinarity among the common areas taught in schools, making the learning process more dynamic and interactive.</p> Vinícius Ferreira da Silva Sandro César Silveira Jucá Vitor Veras de Moura Renata Imaculada Soares Pereira Solonildo Almeida da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 145 152 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1128 Knowledge of continent women on physiotherapy as a treatment of urinary incontinence http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1131 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the knowledge about physiotherapy as a treatment of urinary incontinence in continent women. <strong>Methods</strong>: The study was characterized by a cross-sectional and quantitative study. A ten items questionnaire, created by the researchers, was used with related questions about women's health. The sample consisted of 60 continents women, aged between 20-90 years, divided into age groups, accommodating ten participants in each age delimitation as follows: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-90. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that 65% of the women did not know about the physiotherapeutic treatment for UI, 28.33% had heard and 6.67% knew about it. The channels of knowledge selected by the volunteers who claimed to know or hear about physiotherapy in the UI were 18.18% media, 31.82% were people known, 45.45% were health professionals, and 4.55% were other unna/med forms. It was also found that women aged between 60 and 90 years have more knowledge on the subject (15%) than those aged 20 to 39 (5%) and 40 to 59 years (0%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded, therefore, that continents women need more information regarding physical therapy treatment for urinary incontinence. In addition, this awareness should occur in a multidisciplinary way to cover a greater number of women and information providers, in view of the search for treatment early avoid greater complications.</p> ENILDA MARTA CARNEIRO DE LIMA MELLO HANNA HELLEN FERNANDES MEDEIROS NIKELLY YORANNE DE AQUINO DE MATOS ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 153 166 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1131 WHY CONGRESS NEEDS TO ACT TO UPDATE PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS FROM MULTIPLE AND EXTENSIVE THREATS FROM AROUND THE WORLD. http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1133 <p><em>This article analyzes the extent that digital privacy acts are adequately protected by existing law. The authors look at the historical protection of these rights, and note that the last major piece of legislation in the area was 1986. An analysis of the changes in society from 1986 to the present indicates that changes to current law are long overdue. The authors review some recommended changes and call for Congress to act to update American laws related to electronic communication.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Frederick Greene Linda Naimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-02 2018-09-02 6 8 167 173 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1133 ORGANIZATIONAL AESTHETICS http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1135 <p>In response to the new challenges arising from an increasingly competitive and globalized environment, aimed at the Knowledge Era, where the value of the individual, his knowledge, and best practices become essential, managers with greater sensitivity and flexibility, aligned to entrepreneurial objectives, must be encouraged in the quest for knowledge sharing in order to encounter new opportunities and new processes of innovation. Therefore, the objective of the present research is to apply a strategic model for knowledge sharing in the light of organizational aesthetics and entrepreneurial management, developed by Willerding (2015), in an entrepreneurial organization that promotes knowledge sharing and change generation, opening the discussion on the possible impact of the aesthetic dimension on the ambiguity and subtlety existing in the business routine. To achieve the proposed objective, the study is based on bibliographical and documentary research, and interviews. In general terms, the contribution of the model to the understanding of complexities, ambiguities, and subtleties, existing in the business daily routine, becomes evident, allowing a differentiated perspective in its management so that they can reach new conclusions about their performance, thus promoting a competitive differential and a greater socioeconomic development.</p> Juliano Keller Alvez Inara Antunes Vieira Willerding Édis Mafra Lapolli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 174 189 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1135 ACCOUNTANTS TOWARDS THE ACCOUNTING OF KNOWLEDGE: An analysis of the results of the first technical qualification exam for the creation of the Brazilian National Register of Forensic Accountants http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1136 <p>This article analyses the results of the first technical qualification exam for the creation of the National Register of Forensic Accountants (NRFA or CNPC, acronym in Portuguese) in Brazil, conducted by the Brazilian Federal Council of Accounting (BFCA&nbsp; or CFC, acronym in Portuguese) in 2017. Forensic accounting as a specialized knowledge in accounting presents the paradox of the demand for multidisciplinary knowledge as requirement for assisting in the dispute involving equity interest. In this respect, this research aims to investigate the degree of spatial concentration of the performance and the level of knowledge in forensic accounting, separated by geographic region and federation unit (FU), based on the results of the first exam for the creation of the CNPC. The analysis is supported on the assessment of the candidates’ performance, in the exam’s tests, by using the clustering method. The results present robust evidences that it is necessary to improve continuing professional education and show that the highest spatial concentration of performance and level of specialized knowledge are in the South Region and in the Federal District of Brazil, contradicting the premise that they would be in the Southeast Region, as it is the most developed one in Brazil.</p> Jose Antonio De França Clésia Camilo Pereira Eduardo Tadeu Vieira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 190 226 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1136 Human values in students from a Higher Education Institution http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1137 <p>The purpose of this study was to identify the preference level of the human values that students from a higher education institution endorse during August 2016-June 2017 school year, based on the Portrait Value Questionnaire. For this purpose, the basic values of Benevolence, Universalism, Stimulation, Power, Security, Tradition, Hedonism, Self-Direction, Achievement, and Conformity were studied. The study was exploratory, following a nonexperimental cross-sectional design. The sample was composed of 321 students from a higher education institution in Mexico. 67.6% (217) of the students were female, whereas 32.4% (104) were male. Their ages ranged from 18 to 30 years old. The Portrait Value Questionnaire devised by Shalom Schwartz was administered to them. The most important findings revealed that the basic values of Hedonism, Benevolence, and Self-Direction were highly preferred by the students, whereas the basic value of Achievement scored a preference level below the average. These findings highlighted the importance of identifying the portrait values of university students, so higher education institutions can establish appropriate strategies and actions that foster the students’ development in order to make them professionals with values. &nbsp;</p> Israel Alberto Cisneros Concha Nora Verónica Druet Domínguez Ph.D. Gladis Ivette Chan Chi Ph.D. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 227 234 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1137 A neglected event in endovascular repair of aortic dissection: acute blood pressure variability during aortic angiography http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1139 <p>[Purpose]To investigate acute blood pressure change during aortic angiography in aortic dissection endovascular repair, and analyse the potential risk of this incident.<br>[Method]24 patients with aortic dissection underwent endovascular repair in department of vascular surgery of Changhai hospital between May 2016 and July 2016 were enrolled in this research. Patients were divided into two groups: patients underwent general anesthesia and patients underwent lumbar anesthesia. Blood pressure was monitored by intro-artery catheter. Blood pressure readings were recorded every 10 seconds during the procedure of angiography. Outcome of these patients were observed in hospital. <br>[Result] All patients received endovascular aortic repair, with 19 underwent lumbar anesthesia and 5 underwent general anesthesia. Patients underwent lumbar anesthesia presented temporary blood pressure decrease with average of -11.2±13.4mmHg, while patients underwent general anesthesia presented temporary blood pressure elevation with average of 4.2±6.3mmHg. The Maximum time interval were 26.7±12.7s vs25.8±15.8s, and difference in blood pressure between pre- and post-angiography were 1.53±4.4mmHg vs. 4.6±3.4mmHg, both without significance (P&gt;0.05).<br>[Conclusion] Angiography is an effective factor influencing blood pressure during TEVAR, it’s a potential “trigger” of intra-operative cardiovascular events. Blood pressure should be kept on proper level to avoid cardiovascular events induced by blood pressure variability with angiography. Angiography with General anesthesia has less influence on blood pressure than with lumbar anesthesia.</p> Wen Tian Zhijun Mei Jian Zhou Qingsheng Lu Zaiping Jing ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 235 240 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1139 Spatial variability in the physical properties of an Oxisol under coffee cultivation in the Brazilian Cerrado http://ijier.net/index.php/ijier/article/view/1112 <p>The physical properties of the soil are limiting factors for coffee cultivation and yields.&nbsp; Therefore, we analyzed spatial variability in the physical properties of a clayey Oxisol under coffee cultivation. The experiment was carried out on 14-hectares of a coffee (<em>Coffea arabica</em>) plantation in the city of Monte Carmelo, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Soil samples were collected from two layers (0 - 0.1 m and 0.1 - 0.2 m) at 61 grid-points spaced at 50 x 50 meters.&nbsp; These samples were saturated to determine total porosity and soil bulk density. Soil resistance readings were also taken from the same grid points and layers using an impact penetrometer. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate all variables. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model spatial variability within the soil physical properties. Variographic analysis was performed using semivariograms. We found that density, total porosity and soil resistance to penetration varied throughout the study area, which demonstrates that management type can alter soil physical properties and that maps generated by geostatistics can help coffee growers make decisions related to soil management.</p> Cinara Xavier de Almeida Danilo Ferreira Mendes Ricardo Falqueto Jorge Juliano Marques Pinto George Deroco Martins Arthur Almeida Moraes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 6 8 28 39 10.31686/ijier.Vol6.Iss8.1112