International Journal for Innovation Education and Research <p><strong><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="/public/site/images/editor/logo-ijier.png"></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International</strong> <strong>Journal </strong>for<strong> Innovation Education and Research (IJIER)</strong> is a high-quality open access peer-reviewed research journal that is published by <strong>International Educative Research Foundation and Publisher (IERFP)</strong>. <strong>IJIER</strong> providing a platform for the researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality empirical and theoretical research papers, case studies, literature reviews and book reviews. <strong>IJIER</strong> welcomes and acknowledges high quality theoretical and empirical original research papers, case studies, review papers, literature reviews, book reviews, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, a technical note from researchers, academicians, professionals, practitioners, and students from all over the world.</p> International Educative Research Foundation Publisher (IERFP) en-US International Journal for Innovation Education and Research 2411-3123 <p style="text-align: justify;">Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> Estimating, Budgeting for Quality Control in Higher Education <p>The current study aims to determine the attitudes of estimate and budget of quality control for higher education for the universities and affiliated its institutions. Who is presently undergoing quality assessment according to the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment (NCAAA), it is the organization responsible for verifying quality documents which are prepared by the respective universities and its affiliated colleges and institutions to meet its goals. So in this article suggest the most suitable techniques to estimate and budget for the quality control. To determine most suitable estimate method, this paper analyzes various methods and selects a suitable method of the cost estimate. According to results, the attitudes of the cost estimate depends on the quality work break structure and its various levels of work done to achieve intended goals. The case research examined in this paper was carried out by the authors of the research project ‘Factors Affecting the Quality control in higher education: an Empirical Investigation around Saudi Arabian Universities.</p> Safar Bakheet Almudara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 1 10 The Executive Coaching and Organisational Performance: Review and A Critique of Literature and A Research Agenda. <p><em>&nbsp;</em>Executive coaching is now becoming paramount in any organization that values performance. However, there is scanty research on the relationship between executive coaching and organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to identify the contextual, theoretical, conceptual and methodological gaps that exist between executive coaching and organizational performance. The study has found out that relatively few theories link the two major variables in the study. Experiential leaning theory talks about learning experiences and outcomes of executives but fails to give a clear link of how the various outcomes lead to organizational performance. More so, cognitive behavior theory is more inclined to behavioral changes and self-driven scrutiny on finding fault in oneself with aid of Socratic questioning, but does not clearly explain how the changes lead to organizational performance. The systems approach sheds light on how the various systems in the organization can be amalgamated to give an effective leader but fails to indicate how effective leadership translates to organizational performance. The goal theory on the other hand explains how the various environment and personal aspects lead to goal attainment in the organization. However, learning and behavior change have not been used categorically to explain the goal attainment process. The empirical studies conducted tend to relate executive coaching to other variables such as job satisfaction, individual commitment, self-efficacy and self awareness in the western context but fails to associate the coaching exercise to organizational performance. Finally, few studies have employed inferential statistics to show the association between executive coaching and organizational performance. The fundamental conclusion therefore, is that the gaps mentioned and explained in this study need to be addressed in order to show if indeed there is any association. The study would help organizations in realizing that, the association between executive coaching and organizational performance has an impact in the firm.</p> James Kahugu Kibe Stephen Muathe, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 11 26 Validation of the Polar Fitness Test <p>Aerobic capacity testing can be beneficial to coaches, physical educators, and trainers in the process of designing aerobic training programs. However, testing in a laboratory can be costly. Polar heart rate monitors provide a fitness test that estimates aerobic capacity without having to use expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the Polar fitness test in comparison to the laboratory test. Eighteen college age students completed the Polar fitness test along with a laboratory test for aerobic capacity. The laboratory test consisted of a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill test while the subject was connected to a metabolic cart. The study found that the Polar fitness test provides results that are not statistically different from the metabolic cart results (t = 1.681, p = 0.111). Additionally, the 2 tests were strongly correlated (r = 0.545, p = 0.019). This indicates that the Polar fitness test may be an appropriate means of aerobic capacity testing for those not needing the accuracy of expensive laboratory equipment.</p> Gina Leigh Kraft Maddie Dow ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 27 34 The crisis in private higher education in Brazil: main causes and possible solutions <p>The aim of the article is to examine the main causes of the crisis in private higher education in Brazil since 2015, characterized by the mass dismissals of teachers, the reduction of salaries of those who remain in private higher education institutions, the overcrowding of classrooms and the greater adhesion of students to distance education in the light of the high costs of classroom-based courses. In addition, one of the objectives is also to offer recommendations for overcoming this situation. The research follows the methodological steps of Sécca &amp; Souza (2009) for the analysis of private higher education in Brazil. The bibliographic research consisted of reading, selecting and organizing topics on the general causes of the crisis of the private higher education sector in Brazil since 2016. The next step was the research of information on specific private higher education institutions in Brazil, divided per region: Southeast, South, Midwest and North / Northeast. The central argument points out that the crisis is closely related to the financial crisis in the country, motivated by the adverse international economic situation and the political chaos caused by allegations of corruption and misappropriation of funds by politicians and businessmen. This forced the Brazilian government to reduce and limit access to student financing contracts drastically from 2015 on, and most students from low-income classes were excluded from entering higher education or had to stop studying. Besides, in the light of a higher number of unemployed people and lower salaries, students were less able to afford the tuition fees of a higher education course at a private institution. To overcome difficulties and attract new students, private higher education institutions can rely on multiple strategies, such as scholarships, alternative financing, discounts for those who pay the current monthly fees and the creation of academic endowments.</p> Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus Veranise Jacubowski Correia Dubeux ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 35 46 An Application of Butler’s (1980) Tourist Area Life Cycle to Saly (Senegal) <p>Richard W. Butler publishes in 1980 a model of evolution of tourist destinations known as TALC -Tourism Area Life Cycle- which stipulates that a site exploited for tourism and leisure knows 6 phases in its evolution: exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, decline or rejuvenation. Several experiments of the model will be carried out around the world, however the tourist destinations located in the developing countries constitute a residual category of these applications. This article proposes an exploration of the TALC at the first station developed by the public authorities in West Africa, Saly located on the small coast in Senegal. For this purpose, we used a qualitative research method based on semi-directive interviews with actors at the level of the student site completed by official statistics. Our results show that Saly is in a so-called stagnation phase and that it is important to re-qualify the typology of tourist space in this city, which is experiencing a significant change in relation to its location.</p> Mouhamadou Bamba LY ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 47 56 The perceptions of teacher trainers and trainees on the relevance of instructional resources for Creative Arts teacher education curriculum to learners needs in Kenya <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper is a report of a study that was carried out in the year 2017 on the perceptions of teacher trainers and trainees on the relevance of instructional resources for Creative Arts teacher education curriculum to learners’ needs in Kenya. The larger study from which this paper was drawn was on the perceptions of teacher trainers and trainees on the relevance of Creative Arts teacher education curriculum to learners’ and societal needs. This study was guided by Structural Functionalism Theory. The pragmatic paradigm was adopted in the study. The study used mixed methods research approach. These involved integrating the qualitative and quantitative approaches. Under this design, both the qualitative and quantitative data were collected concurrently, analyzed separately and then merged for interpretation of overall results. This study targeted teacher trainees, trainers and HoDs of Creative Arts drawn from public primary teacher training colleges in the western region of Kenya. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were used to select the sample whereby three hundred and ten participants were selected for the study. These comprised of 270 teacher trainees, 30 teacher trainers (tutors) and 10 HODs for Creative Arts. The research instruments used were teacher trainees’ questionnaire; the teacher trainers’ questionnaire; and the HoDs interview schedule. Data analysis was done by the use of descriptive statistics whereby frequencies and percentages were calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The results of the study revealed that teacher trainees and trainers perceived resources such as song repertoire and audio-visuals among others as relevant to the learner and societal needs but inadequate. The instructional resources in the colleges were perceived to be inadequate and obsolete. Lack of rooms to accommodate practical teaching using the suggested resources was also of concern. It was recommended that colleges should endeavor to provide all the resources suggested in the syllabus and replace those that are obsolete. In addition, emphasis should be put on teaching the subject in a more practical way through the provision of time and space. The results of this study will be useful to pre-service teachers, teacher trainers, policymakers, and researchers, on curriculum development and implementation of Creative Arts curriculum for teacher education.</p> Keoro Andrew Nyamota Dr. (Mrs.) Anne Syomwene Kisilu Prof. Peter L. Barasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 57 73 Do Veterinarians recognize a Role for Physical Therapist in <p>The role of physical therapy and rehabilitation of an injured or aging small animal offers great potential. The increase in the use of domestic small animals, particularly canines, as companion animals, service animals and for athletic competition<em>, </em>advances in medical and surgical techniques in veterinary medicine and personal experiences participating in physical therapy appears to have created a desire from owners regarding the animal’s quality of life and quantity of years<em>. </em>There is little literature addressing small animal physical therapy rehabilitation and how such services might be accessed. We present an interview-based study to assess opinions of veterinarians to gauge whether they perceive a need for small animal physical therapy and rehabilitation. We further examine which health care professionals these veterinarians perceive are most qualified to render these rehabilitative services. Eight veterinarians from a rural, northeastern region of Georgia were interviewed. The results demonstrate that many veterinarians may not have received curriculum instruction in small animal physical therapy through veterinary school. Still, results reveal that veterinarians in this study support physical therapists playing a role in the rehabilitative treatment of small animals. This study further supports the need for interprofessional education and collaboration in the treatment of small animals and their physical therapy needs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sue Ann S. Kalish, PT, DPT OCS Courtney Charlesworth Brittny Garrison Brooke Terilli Ashton Zambrowicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 74 84 A Study of the Secondary Flow in Aircraft Engine Compressor Disks using Computational Fluid Dynamics <p>The compressor disks of an aircraft engine which operate at very high rotational speeds are exposed to significant temperature gradients. These temperature gradients induce thermal stresses into the rotating disks which along with the existing dynamic stresses significantly reduce their useful field life. Hence it becomes essential to reduce the disk temperature gradients by utilizing a certain percentage of the compressor core flow known as the secondary flow for either heating or cooling these rotating parts. But this extraction of the compressor core flow results in a higher engine fuel burn for a given engine thrust.&nbsp; Hence the need arises for a better utilization of the secondary flow to effectively reduce the temperature gradients of the rotating compressor disks. As the secondary flow thermal phenomenon&nbsp; inside the rotating compressor disk cavities is very complex and due to it’s direct impact on the&nbsp; life expectancy of the disks it becomes critical to understand it’s&nbsp; thermo-fluid behaviour by the effective use of available Computational Fluid Dynamic tools. In the current study the secondary flow through the compressor disk cavities is simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (<em>CFD</em>) and the results are analysed and reported. The analysis of these results help in a better understanding of the distribution of the flow and the variations of the thermal fluid parameters across the secondary flow system. These results are also later used as thermal boundary conditions in the Finite Element model (<em>FEM</em>) to study the impact of various engine design parameters on the disk temperature gradients after being validated by the experimental results. The findings from this computer aided investigation offers support in make design improvements aimed at lowering the disk temperature gradients and enhancing their useful field life</p> Syed Naveed Ahmed P. Ravinder Reddy Sriram Venkatesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 85 104 A Self-study of Innovation in Quality Assurance at the Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education <p>This paper presents a self-study of the innovative policies, practices, methods, systems and instruments that have been used by the Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education to assure quality in the constantly changing higher education environment. The aim of the paper is to provide information to countries still developing quality assurance frameworks. The author underscore the role of motivation in creating fertile ground for innovation and creativity.</p> Evelyn Chiyevo Garwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 105 110 Using of undergraduate student’s feedback, learning process and growth mindset to improve the teaching and learning at university <p>Several researches indicate that undergraduate students are unsatisfied with their learning experience at university. One of the reasons is the non-effective communication between teachers and students. The non-effective communication may cause problems in teaching and learning, which are fundamental and professional skills that teachers and students must continually develop. Problems in teaching and learning impact directly the learning experience at university of the students, and improve the communication between teachers and students can solve the problems. The communication and, consequently, the teaching and learning, can be improved using the undergraduate student’s feedback. In this paper, a methodology to improve the teaching and learning is presented. The methodology is based on the use of undergraduate student’s feedback, and it was utilized in an electrical engineering classroom during one year. Based on the results, teaching, learning, communication, motivation, engagement and satisfaction of the teacher and students have improved correlating the methodology with the learning process and growth mindset.</p> Jalberth Fernandes de Araujo Izadora Soares Cardoso Ariadne Caroline Silva Guedes Ianca Rocha Ferreira Helvio Rubens Reis de Albuquerque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 111 118 Purpose in Life and Professional Life Project in College Students <p>The objective of this study was to determine the relation between the level of purpose in life and the level of dominion obtained by the students in the construction of a professional life project; after the implementation of a course based on the Logotherapy approach, which lasted a total of 64 hours. The areas worked were self-discovery, unicity, freedom, responsibility and self-transcendence.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Logotherapeutic techniques of Socratic dialogue, role playing and cinema-logotherapy were used. The objective was to redirect the work carried out with students of the Bachelor Degree in Education at a Public University in the State of Yucatan, so that they could be aware of themselves, discover their potential and find their mission in life to give meaning to their chosen profession. The design of the study was pre-experimental, pretest-post-test, without control group; and the meaning of life test was administered to identify the level of Purpose in Life of the students. A rubric was used to evaluate the professional life projects that were developed by the students. The results showed that there is no relation between the level of Purpose in Life and the development of the professional life project, since the strengthening of the Purpose in Life did not necessarily imply the development of a professional life project in accordance with the potentials of the students, neither they managed to establish clear goals and specific commitments to achieve their goals.</p> Gladis Ivette Chan Chi Nora Verónica Druet Domínguez Gladys Julieta Guerrero Walker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 119 132 An undergraduate forensic biochemistry laboratory experiment to detect doping in animal hair using LCMS <p>Doping using performance enhancing banned substances is a serious problem in almost every sport competition. Not surprisingly, the detection of these contra banned drugs is an area of active and continuous improvement and innovation by bioanalytical chemists. Additionally, most students working out in the gym and taking part in various sports need to be made aware of the doping and the health problems associated with it. Science or STEM students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed forensic laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn liquid chromatography mass spectrometry instrumentation (LC-MS) to detect four common doping drugs cortisol, dexamethasone, methyl prednisolone and flumethasone in camel hair samples. <br>In addition, the project is also designed to reinforce the importance of hair analysis as an additional sample matrix, complementary to saliva, blood and urine tests, in doping applications. In addition to learning various aspects of sample preparation, extraction, and LC-MS principles, students will also learn how to validate this method according to Food and Drugs Administration guidelines for intra and inter day precision and accuracy, recovery, stability and linearity. <br>This “applied forensic science” experiment was successfully implemented in a biochemistry undergraduate research course to enhance students' learning of doping issues as well as important bio-analytical and forensic biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising awareness of doping control in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an advanced biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise. Such hands-on and engaging experiments should be part of undergraduate curriculum to foster deeper interest and innovation in STEM subjects to better prepare the next-generation workforce in science and technology.</p> ILTAF SHAH Syed Salman Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-05 2018-02-05 6 1 133 148 Methodology of power analysis in Michel Foucault’s thought <p>This work seeks to reconstruct Michel Foucault's power analysis methodology in order to understand how he overcomes the classical theories of power by proposing a way of seeing power as a relation that occurs between subjects. In order to do so, the relations between truth and power will be analyzed, as well as the methodological premises elaborated by the author in his main works on power.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Humberto Ribeiro Junior Rayane Marinho Rosa Heitor Brandão Dorneles Junior ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 149 158 TBL Team Based Learning: An InnovativeTeaching Strategy For Enhancing Students' Engagement <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong>Team based learning is a strategy that combines features of student-centeredness and problem solving attributes. It also enhance students’ engagement which achieve desired outcomes such as retention; academic achievement and improved critical thinking. <strong>Aim</strong>: The present study aimed to investigate &nbsp;the effect of implementing team based learning on students' engagement in nursing administration course.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods</strong>: A quasi experimental design was used. The study sample included 251 students who were studied nursing administration course during the first term of academic year 2015/2016,they were divided into two groups: experimental group (n=128) and control group (n=123). Data was collected by using four tools: Team based learning knowledge questionnaire, Readiness Assurance Test for Team based learning, Students' engagement questionnaire, Preference between team based learning and traditional learning questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Results:</strong> There was highly statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups regarding academic challenges, active and collaborative learning, students - staff interactions and total students' engagement domains .there was no statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups regarding enriching educational experiences and supportive learning environment domains.The majority students of experimental group preferred team based learning more than traditional learning.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Implementing team-based learning method in nursing administration course enhances students' engagement, especially academic challenges, active and collaborative, student-staff interactions domains. The majority of the students were preferred team-based learning method more than the traditional method<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong>Team-based learning method should be implemented in nursing administration course and other nursing courses in the faculty. Feedback questionnaire should be administered to collect views of students and meeting with students to let them express about their opinions after studying assigned courses.</p> Ibrahim Abdellatif Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 159 174 Employer perceptions and attitudes towards agricultural university training in Kenya <p>Agriculture is the backbone of most Sub-Saharan African economies accounting for 40 % of the GDP and 80% employment. Yet agricultural graduates have not been able to “hit the ground running” upon graduation. This study assessed the quality of agricultural graduates from Kenyan Universities in terms of relevance to job market demands. A mixed method approach was used to collect data through a personal interview survey and focus group discussions involving 54 public and private organizations. Descriptive statistics was used to generate means and frequencies to validate the study hypotheses. Results indicated that employers’ main concern on quality of graduates were poor interpersonal (&gt; 90%), communication (53%), practical (&gt;90%) and character (78%) skills.&nbsp; Further future agriculture will be impacted by competencies in practical skills (56%) and training in contemporary issues like climate change (17%). Success of agricultural production to a large degree depends on the human resources available within the sector. If the quality of university graduates is poor, it negatively affects the entire knowledge chain. This research also has an implication for university administrators and policy makers in training holistic graduates that meet employers’ and socio-economic development needs. Integrating job market requirements into university curricula can improve the quality of graduates that directly impact agricultural productivity for economic development and poverty reduction.</p> Cecilia Moraa Onyango Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga Davis Njuguna Karanja Raphael Githaiga Wahome ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 175 185 EFFECTS OF DRUG AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE ON PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN KAKUMA REFUGEE CAMP, TURKANA COUNTY, KENYA <p>This study investigated the effect of drug and substance abuse on primary school pupils’ academic performance in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent of drug and substance abuse among pupils, establish whether peer influence led to drug and substance abuse among pupils and determine the influence of drug and substance abuse on pupils; academic performance. The study was guided by Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory of 1986. The research used descriptive survey design and stratified sampling technique. The sample size compared 200 pupils, 20 guiding and counseling teachers, 10 headteachers and 1 education officer. The study used questionnaires to gather quantitative data which was analyzed using SPSS package and was thereafter presented in frequencies tables and graphs. On the other hand, qualitative data was solicited through focus discussion groups and was processed through content analysis and summarized in thematic areas. The findings indicated that alcohol was the commonly abused substance. The majority (65%) of teacher counselors stated that drug and substance abuse and was most commonly available at 55% among pupils who abused drugs and alcohol. As a result, most of the pupils (58.8%) expected to attain between 201-250 marks at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in 2017. The prevalence of abuse of alcohol was at 55% followed by tobacco and bhang at 45% and 35% respectively. &nbsp;The results have further revealed that the causes of alcohol and drug abuse included peer pressure influence with (75%), idleness (65%), lack of parental guidance (40%), availability of drugs in schools (35%) and influence of extended family (25%).</p> Immaculate Muthikwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 186 198 0033 The Role of Nurses in the Treatment and Care of HIV/AIDS patients - based on the dimensions of health care. <p>There is a lack of nursing studies that are specifically focused on assessing and caring for people living with HIV / AIDS to improve their quality of life. Little is known about the current situation regarding the care of persons living with HIV / AIDS.This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study will try to identify the assessment of nursing care in order to promote a better understanding of nursing care. A structured self-administered questionnaire administered from April 30 to June 15, 2014, was used for data collection.The participants were 55 patients, whose average age was 33.3 ±7.98 years, ranging from 20 to 55 years of age, out of which 24 (43.6%) of patients were female, while 31 (56.4% of them were males). They had different socioeconomic and educational levels. Regarding the biological dimension of nursing care, despite a positive trend in patient care estimation, differences between individual patient groups are observed based on the educational level.So patients with secondary and higher education are more likely to positively assess nursing care by the biological dimension versus 8-year-old patients. While with the psychological dimension and with other dimensions such as spiritual, social, stigmatization and discrimination there is no statistically significant relation between the socio-demographic characteristics of patients.Among the 5 dimensions, it is noticed that patients have evaluated less positively stigma, discrimination, compared to other dimensions. So patients are noticed a dissatisfaction with the fact that they are treated by nurses at the time of health care. The Nursing School to increase the development and implementation of quality research should identify the feelings, experiences, experiences and meanings of HIV/AIDS patients on nursing care. HIV / AIDS is a growing risk of modern times, requiring long-lasting research and research.</p> Glodiana Sinanaj Arjan Harxhi Brunilda Subashi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 199 212 EFFECTS OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN KENYA <p>The Kenya government has instituted fiscal decentralization over the years to promote social economic development, reduce poverty and income inequality and ensure balanced regional development. Despite these efforts, poverty levels have remained high in Kenya. The literature on the relationship between fiscal decentralization and poverty has been rather inconclusive about the effects of fiscal decentralization on poverty. The main objective of this paper was to analyse the effects of fiscal decentralization on poverty in Kenya. Using cross-county panel data from 2002 – 2014 and published data from government agencies, UNDP reports and World Bank reports, the paper estimated various empirical models to analyse the effects intergovernmental transfers, sub-national own-source revenue and county expenditure on poverty in Kenya. The study established that the effect of fiscal decentralization on poverty depends on the nature of decentralization and the extent of fiscal decentralization as well as the county specifics. The paper therefore, recommends the need for for county governments to have adequate own-source revenue to finance their expenditure as opposed to relying on intergovernmental transfers from national government.</p> PETER MWIATHI SILAS ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 213 230 Effects of Training on Quality of Clinical Coding at Mbagathi County Referral <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong> Professionals from various cadres in the health sector raise concerns regarding the poor quality of clinical coding leading to lack of evidence-based practice. Assessing the quality of the clinical coding in one of Nairobi City County’s major hospital would be a step towards establishing the exact gaps in quality of the coding process and outcome. Training the professionals would also foster better clinical coding practice in one of the major facilities nationally.</p> <p><strong><em>Method:</em></strong> The study aimed at establishing the quality of clinical coding within Mbagathi County Referral Hospital, and thereafter determined the effect of training on the established clinical coding quality. An interventional trial study design was used, with a quality of clinical coding checklist used classify codes assignment or lack of which. The sample included 320 patient files selected randomly from a month-long list of patients.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> The study found out that the overall baseline code quality was slightly above average given that majority (55%) of the code assignment were good as established by a composite score of the various coding quality attributes assessed. Given the need for training based on the low quality, a training intervention was then conducted based on the needs identified. An indexing database was also installed for the coders to use in encoding the codes assigned. Code quality improved to 77% after the training. Code completion was excellent at the facility, as established from the 97% of the files that were completely coded at baseline and later improved to 99%. Notably, also, is that the hospital improved its coding of procedures and death certification by 32 and 53% respectively. The hospital also started using the indexing tool that was introduced as an intervention.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> The health facility could act as a good benchmark for code completion. However, code completion without accuracy in the code assignment invalidates the overall quality of coding. Code accuracy improved with the training almost immediately after the interventions. More practice would for sure lead to better clinical coding accuracy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Josephat Gachoka Kiongo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-31 2018-01-31 6 1 231 237