Personal Variables and Anxiety in English and Mathematics: Correlational and Comparative Investigation among Pre-University Students

Main Article Content

Jerryk Comawas Alico Usamah D. Maraorao Rovelyn D. Maraorao

Abstract

Literatures on the role of students’ emotion in learning have brought to light some realizations as to how teaching should transpire. This comparative and correlational research attempts to enrich further such realizations by providing more information about language and mathematics anxieties—two of the most investigated forms of anxiety. This study also correlated some profile variables such as age, sex, ethnic affiliation, and type of high school attended to the two anxieties. Involved in the investigation were 98 pre-university students who were part of the last batch of students in the Pre-University Center in the second semester of academic year 2015-2016. The reliable questionnaires used to gather data were the Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (A-MARS) and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. Data revealed that students have significantly higher level of mathematics anxiety compared to their language anxiety level. There was a negative correlation between the said anxieties, but it was not significant. The descriptors of mathematics anxiety showed that fear of assessment and evaluation, like final grading, upcoming tests, and taking an exam, was the main cause their anxiety. However, the language anxiety descriptors only exhibited indirect and inconclusive behavioral causes to their anxiety such as feeling like not going to their English class and thinking of other irrelevant things during the class. When profile variables were correlated with mathematics and language anxieties, only sex was found to be significantly associated with mathematics anxiety while none had a significant relationship with English language anxiety. A significant difference was also found between male and female students’ mathematics anxiety levels, showing that female students were more anxious than male ones. Findings imply that mathematics and language teachers need to improve their teaching methods and styles to alleviate, if not eliminate, students’ anxieties.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Alico, J., Maraorao, U., & Maraorao, R. (2017). Personal Variables and Anxiety in English and Mathematics: Correlational and Comparative Investigation among Pre-University Students. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 5(11), 48-61. Retrieved from http://ijier.net/ijier/article/view/852
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Jerryk Comawas Alico, Mindanao State University Marawi City, Philippines

Special Assistant, Office of the Vice President for Planning and Development

Usamah D. Maraorao, Division of Mati City Mati City, Davao Oriental, Philippines

Teacher II, Department of Education

Rovelyn D. Maraorao, Division of Mati City Mati City, Davao Oriental, Philippines

Teacher II, Department of Education

References

Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope's construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 155–168.
Alico, J. (2015). Exploring English Language Anxiety: The Case of Pre-University Students from Minority Tribes. ELK Asia Pacific Journal of Social Sciences, 2(1). doi:10.16962/EAPJSS/issn.2394-9392/2014

Ameen, E.C., Guffey, D.M., & Jackson, C. (2002). Evidence of teaching anxiety among accounting educators. Journal of Education for Business, 78(1), 16–22.

Ashcraft MH 2002. Math Anxiety: Personal, Educational, and Cognitive Consequences, Current Directions. J Psychological Science, 11(5): 181-185.

Ashcraft MH, Kirk EP 2001. The Relationships among Working Memory, Math Anxiety and Performance. J Experimental Psychology, 130(2): 224-237.Atkinson, 1988

Bailey, K.M. (1983). Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies. In H.W. Seliger and M.H. Long (Eds.), Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Baloglu, M., & Koçak, R. (2006). A multivariate investigation of the differences in mathematics anxiety. Personality & Individual Differences, 40 (7), 1325−1335.
Batiha, J., Mohd Noor, N. & Mustaffa, R. (2014). Exploring the Factors of Classroom Anxiety in the Context of EFL Arab Students. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 2(2), pp. 18-31.
Blau, A. (1955). A unitary hypothesis of emotion: Anxiety, Emotions of Displeasure, and Affective Disorders, Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 24, 75-103.

Bush, W. S. (1989). Mathematics anxiety in upper elementary school teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 89(6), 499-509.

Byrd, P. (1982). A descriptive study of mathematics anxiety: Its nature and antecedents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. Cemen, P. B. (1987). The nature of mathematics anxiety. Stillwater: Oklahoma State University.
Cheng, Y. S. (2002). Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals. Vol. 35(6), 647-656. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2002.tb01903.x

Clute P 1984. Mathematics Anxiety, Instructional Method and Achievement in a Survey Course in College Mathematics. J Research in Mathematics Education, 5: 50-58.

Devine, A., Fawcett, K., Szűcs, D., & Dowker, A. (2012). Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 8, 1-9. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-8-33

Dewaele, J. M. & MacIntyre, P. D. (2014). The two faces of Janus? Anxiety and enjoyment in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching. Vol. 4(2), 237-274. https://doi.org/10.14746/ssllt.2014.4.2.5

Dreger RM, Aiken LR 1957. The Identification of Number Anxiety in a College Population. J Educational Psychology, 47: 344-351.

Ellis, R. & Rathbone, M. (1987). The acquisition of German in a classroom context. Mimeograph. London: Ealing College of Higher Education.

Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Garry VS 2005. The Effect of Mathematics Anxiety on the Course and Career Choice of High School. Ph. D. Thesis (Unpublished), Philadelphia: Drexel University.

Gresham, G. (2009). Examining the relationship between pre-service elementary teachers’ experience of mathematics anxiety and their efficacy for teaching mathematics. Journal of Classroom Interaction 44(2), 22–38.

Haciomeroglu, G. (2013). Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Beliefs: What Is the Relationship in Elementary Pre-Service Teachers? IUMPST: The Journal. Vol 5 (Teacher Attributes). www.k-12prep.math.ttu.edu

Hembree, R. (1990). The nature, effect, and relief of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(1), 33-46.
Horwitz, E. K. (1986). Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a foreign language anxiety scale. TESOL Quarterly, 20, 559−562.
Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Lan-guage Journal, 70(2), 125–132.

Jain, S., & Dowson, M. (2009). Mathematics anxiety as a function of multidimensional self-regulation and self-efficacy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 240-249. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2009.05.004

Karimi, S. & Venkatesan, S. (2009). Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Performance and Academic Hardiness in High School Students. Int J Edu Sci, 1(1): 33-37

Kitano, K. (2001). Anxiety in the college Japanese language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 85(4), 549–566.

Levine, G. (1993). Prior mathematics history, anticipated mathematics teaching style, and anxiety for teaching mathematics among pre-service elementary school teachers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Group for Psychology of Mathematics Education, North American Chapter (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED373972).

Ma, X. (1999). A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety toward mathematics and achievement in mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30, 520–540.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1989). Anxiety and second-language learning: Toward a theoretical clarification. Language Learning, 39(2), 251–275.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1991). Investigating language class anxiety using the focused essay tech-nique. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 296–304.
MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994). The subtle effects of language learning on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44(2), 283−305.
Matsuda, S., & Gobel, P. (2004). Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom. System, 32(1), 21–36.
May, D. (2009). Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Questionnaire. A Dissertation. University of Georgia.
Ndirangu, G, W., Muola, J, M., Kithuka, M, R., Nassiuma, D, R. An Investigation of the Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Nyeri District, Kenya. Global Journal of Educational Research 8(1 & 2): 1-7.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P., & Daley, C. E. (1999). Factors associated with foreign language anxiety. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20(2), 217–239.
Peker, M. & Ertekin, E. (2011). The relationship between mathematics teaching anxiety and mathematics anxiety. The New Educational Review, 23(1), 213–226.
Peker, M. (2009). The effects of an instruction using problem solving strategies in Mathematics on the teaching anxiety level of the pre-service primary school teachers. The New Educational Review, 19(3–4), 95–114.
Pourmoslemi, A., Erfani, N. & Firoozfar, I. (2013). Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Performance and Gender differences among Undergraduate Students. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(7), 1-6.

Richardson, F. C, & Suinn, R. M. (1972). The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale: Psychometric data. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 79,551-554.
Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Lan-guage Learning, 28, 129–142.

Skemp R. (1986). The Psychology of Learning Mathematics. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sparks, R. and Ganschow, L. (1995). A Strong Inference Approach to Causal Factors in Foreign Langauge Learning: a Response to MacIntyre. The Modern Language Journal 79:235‐244.
Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Truitt, S. N. (1995). Anxiety and beliefs about language learning: A study of Korean university students learning English (Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

Uusimaki, L. & Nason, R. (2004). Causes underlying pre-service teachers’ negative beliefs and anxieties about mathematics. Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 4, 369–376. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED489664).

Vinson, B.M. (2001). A comparison of pre-service teachers’ mathematics anxiety before and after a methods class emphasizing manipulatives. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 89–94.

Young, D. J. (1990). An investigation of students’ perspectives on anxiety and speaking. Foreign Language Annals, 23(6), 539−553.

Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 426–439.