Main Article Content
Background: The incidence of renal failure, and potentially of CRF, is increasing steadily in Sudan. Anaemia is an accompaniment and independent risk factor for the development of cardiac dysfunction along with other complications. It is also responsible for 40-50% deaths in CRF patients. For this reason, the quick and accurate diagnosis of anaemia should help in decreasing the morbidity caused by CRF. The correction of anaemia, e.g. by the administration of iron supplements and/or erythropoietin, should help improving the general outcome of CRF.
methods: Fifty patients with chronic renal failure, already diagnosed clinically and on laboratory basis were selected as a sample group. Another 50 healthy individuals not known to have renal disease were selected as a control group. 5 ml of venous blood was collected in lithium heparin container for iron and ferritin. Concentration of iron was measured by colorimetric method by using SPINREACT™ and serum ferritin by Turbilatex-Ferritin kit. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS) on programmed computer. Results: The mean ± SD of serum ferritin was calculated in patients and controls and it was found 72 μg/L ± 16.2 for patients and 96 μg/L ± 19.7 for controls the (p-value 0.000). Also the mean ± SD of serum iron was obtain from patients and controls and was found 41μg/dL ± 29.2 and 87 μg/dL ± 47.5 respectively with (p-value = 0.000). There were a weak negative correlation between serum iron and serum ferritin concentrations in patients and controls (R -0.161). Conclusion: The study concludes that serum iron and ferritin levels in CRF patients are significantly low in comparison to healthy controls.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
2- Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during acute acid-base disturbances. The American journal of medicine. 1981; 71(3): 456-467.
3- Kaye M. The anemia associated with renal disease. The Journal of laboratory and
clinical medicine. 1958; 52(1):83-100.
4- Taralov Z, Koumtchev E, Lyutakova Z. Erythrocyte ferritin levels in chronic renal
failure patients. Folia medica. 1998; 40(4): 65-70.
5- Wish JB. Assessing iron status: beyond serum ferritin and transferrin saturation.
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2006; 1 Suppl 1:S4-8.
6- Begum SKN. Iron Status in Chronic Renal Failure with Anemia. AMM Ehteshamul Hoque. 2013: 12.
7- Hsu CY, McCulloch CE, Curhan GC. Epidemiology of anemia associated with chronic renal insufficiency among adults in the United States: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2002; 13(2):504-510.
8- Rao A, Gilg J, Williams A. UK Renal Registry 15th annual report: Chapter 6 haemoglobin, ferritin and erythropoietin amongst UK adult dialysis patients in 2011: national and centre-speci fi c analyses. Nephron. 2013;123 Suppl 1:125- 150.
9- Dzgoeva FU, Gatagonova TM, Kadzaeva ZK, Khamitsaeva OV, Kochisova Z, Dzueva AT, et al. [Diastolic dysfunction in different types of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with end-stage renal failure: impact of long-term erythropoietin therapy]. Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2013; 85(6):44-50.
10- Taralov Z, Koumtchev E, Lyutakova Z. Erythrocyte ferritin levels in chronic renal
failure patients. Folia medica. 1998; 40(4):65-70
11- Kasiske BL CB, Rosenberg M, Foley R, Swan S, Fogo A, et al. Anaemia of chronic kidney disease. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2001; 37:98.
12- Post JB, Wilkes BM, Michelis MF. Iron deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease: potential role for intravenous iron therapy independent of erythropoietin.
International urology and nephrology. 2006; 38(3-4):719-23.
13- Lopez-Sierra M, Calderon S, Gomez J, Pilleux L. Prevalence of Anaemia and Evaluation of Transferrin Receptor (sTfR) in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in the Hospitalized Elderly Patients: Anaemia Clinical Studies in Chile. Anemia. 2012.
14- Skali H, Lin J, Pfeffer MA, Chen CY, Cooper ME, McMurray JJ, et al. Hemoglobin stability in patients with anemia, CKD, and type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the TREAT (Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy) placebo arm. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2013; 61(2):238-246.
15- Kalantar-Zadeh K, Hoffken B, Wunsch H, Fink H, Kleiner M, Luft FC. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in renal failure patients during the post-erythropoietin era. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 1995; 26(2):292-299
16- Kaufman JS, Reda DJ, Fye CL, Goldfarb DS, Henderson WG, Kleinman JG, et al. Diagnostic value of iron indices in hemodialysis patients receiving epoetin. Kidney international. 2001;60(1):300-308.
17- Milman N, Bangsboll S, Pedersen NS, Visfeldt J. Serum ferritin in non-dialysis patients with chronic renal failure: relation to bone marrow iron stores. Scandinavian
journal of haematology. 1983; 30(4):337-344.
18- Hutchinson FN, Jones WJ. A cost-effectiveness analysis of anemia screening before erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease. American journal of kidney
diseases. 1997; 29(5):651-657.
19- Fernandez-Rodriguez AM, Guindeo-Casasus MC, Molero-Labarta T, Dominguez-Cabrera C, Hortal-Casc n L, Perez-Borges P, et al. Diagnosis of iron deficiency in chronic renal failure. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 1999; 34(3):508-513.
20- Patruta SI, Edlinger R, Sunder-Plassmann G, Horl WH. Neutrophil impairment associated with iron therapy in hemodialysis patients with functional iron deficiency.
21- Kshirsagar AV, Freburger JK, Ellis AR, Wang L, Winkelmayer WC, Brookhart MA. The comparative short-term effectiveness of iron dosing and formulations in US
hemodialysis patients. The American journal of medicine. 2013; 126 (6):541 e1- e14.
22- Safa Ez-Aldeen Al-Mukhtar KHA, Nabil Salman Iron Status in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure on Haemodialysis IRAQI Postegraduate Medical
23- Malovrh M, Hojs N, Premru V. The influence of need-based, continuous, lowdose iron replacement on hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients treated with
erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Artificial organs. 2011; 35(1):63-68
24- Pouresmaeil R, Razeghi E, Ahmadi F. Correlation of serum lead levels with inflammation, nutritional status, and clinical complications in hemodialysis patients.
Renal failure. 2012;34(9):1114-1117.
25- Atkinson MA, Pierce CB, Fadrowski JJ, Benador NM, White CT, Turman MA, et al. Association between common iron store markers and hemoglobin in children with
chronic kidney disease. Pediatric nephrology. 2012;27(12):2275-2283.
26- Cuevas X, Garcia F, Martin-Malo A, Fort J, Llados F, Lozano J, et al. Risk factors associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Spanish incident hemodialysis patients. 2012;33(1-3):21- 29.
27- Rafi A, Karkar A, Abdelrahman M. Monitoring iron status in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia. 2007;18(1):73-78.
28- Malyszko J, Malyszko JS, Hryszko T, Pawlak K, Mysliwiec M. Is hepcidin a link between anemia, inflammation and liver function in hemodialyzed patients? American journal of nephrology. 2005; 25(6):586-590.
29- Kalantar-Zadeh K, McAllister CJ, Lehn RS, Liu E, Kopple JD. A low serum iron level is a predictor of poor outcome in hemodialysis patients. American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation. 2004; 43(4):671-684.