Main Article Content
Background: Higher education nursing programs include a physical/health assessment course that prepares graduates to provide excellent care based on data collected through assessment. Finding a teaching strategy that engages students as well as educates them in health assessment techniques is a challenge that all nurse educators share.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of engagement and learning that occurred with undergraduate and graduate students who participated in a health assessment course that included the use of an online virtual standardized patient (VSP).
Design: Quantitative, descriptive survey research was utilized to determine student nurses’ perception of the use of VSP in a physical assessment course.
Setting/Participants: Students in a traditional on-campus BSN program and students in an online RN to BSN and MSN program were included in this study.
Methods: After receiving IRB approval, course leaders provided students a standardized questionnaire of two (2) multiple choice and six (6) Likert-style questions. The questions evaluated the participants’ ease of use, comparison of interaction between online virtual and live human patients, ability to perform an exam on a virtual patient, and ability to communicate with a virtual patient. Questionnaires were administered to volunteers in the three identified health assessment courses (BSN, RN-BSN, and MSN). Also evaluated was the participant’s perception of their ability to transfer knowledge from the VSP to the live patient. All students participated in the VSP with completion of the questionnaire optional.
Results: Findings in this study generally supported the educational value of using a virtual standardized patient in teaching both undergraduate and graduate students’ health assessment. Variations between the groups were found.
Conclusion: Use of a virtual standardized patient is a positive teaching strategy for teaching health assessment in both undergraduate and graduate nursing programs.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication.
Copyrights for articles published in IJIER journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.
Bigelow, A.D.; Pardee, M.; Kuzma, E.K. & Boucher, N.L. (2014). Evaluation of a digital standardized patient experience in advanced health assessment. Presented at the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) 40th Annual Meeting, April 3-5, Denver, CO.
Bolstad, A.L.; Xu, Y.; Shen, J.J.; Covelli, M. & Miriam Torpey,M. (2012). Reliability of standardized patients used in a communication study on international nurses in the United States of America. Nursing and Health Sciences, 14, 67–73.
Botezatu, M, Hult, H. Tessma, M.K. & Fos, U.G.H. (2010). Virtual patient simulation for learning and assessment: Superior results in comparison with regular course exams. Medical Teacher, 32, 845-850.
Byrne, D.M. & Martin, B. N. (2014). A Solution to the Shortage of Nursing Faculty: Awareness and Understanding of the Leadership Style of the Nursing Department Head. Nurse Educator, 39(3), 107-112.
Cant, R.P. & Cooper, S.J. (2017). The value of simulation-based learning in pre-licensure nurse education: A state-of-the-art review and meta-analysis. Nurse Education in Practice, 27, 45-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2017.08.012
Cross, B. & Wilson, D. (2009) High-fidelity simulation for transport team training and competency evaluation. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews, 9 (4): 200-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.nainr.2009.09.005
Dennis, D.; Furness, A.; Duggan & R. Critchett, S. (2017). An interprofessional simulation-based learning activity for nursing and physiotherapy students. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13, 501-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2017.06.002
Downar, J.; McNaughton, N.; Abdellhalim, T.; Wong, N.; Lapointe-Shaw, L., et al. (2017). Standardized patient simulation versus didactic teaching alone for improving resident’s communication skills when discussing goals of care and resuscitation: A randomized control trial. Palliative Medicine, 31(2), 130-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269216316652278
Fang, D. & Bednash, G.D. (2014). Attrition of full-time faculty from schools of nursing with baccalaureate and graduate programs, 2010 to 2011. Nursing Outlook, 62(3), 164-173.
Fosberg, E., Ziegert, K., Hult, H & Fors, U. (2014). Clinical reasoning in nursing, a think-aloud study using virtual patients – A base for an innovative assessment. Nurse Education Today, 34, 538-542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2015.09.006
Fosberg, E., Ziegert, K., Hult, H & Fors, U. (2016). Assessing progression of clinical reasoning through virtual patients: An exploratory study. Nurse Education in Practice, 16, 97-103.
Gillette, C.; Rudolph, M.S.; Rockich-Winston, N.; Stanton, R. & Anderson, G. (2017). Improving Pharmacy student communication outcomes using standardized patients. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(6), 1-10.
Haselhurst, B. (October 2015). From invention to innovation. Business in Greater Gainesville. Retrieved from: http://businessmagazinegainesville.com/from-invention-to-innovation/
Hubal, R.C., Kizakevich, P.N., Guinn, C.I., Merino, K.D. & West, S.L. (2000). The Virtual Standardized Patient. Simulated patient-practitioner dialog for patient interview training. Stud Health Technol Inform, 70, 133-8.
Jenkins, L.S. & Schaivone, K. (2007). Chapter 1: standardized patients in nursing education in: M.H. Oermann, K.T. Heinrich (Eds.), Annual Review of Nursing Education, 5, Springer, New York, pp. 1–23.
Kelley, C. (2015). Using a virtual patient in an advanced assessment course. Journal of Nursing Education, 54(4), 228-231.
Kirkman, T. (2013). High Fidelity Simulation Effectiveness in Nursing Students’ Transfer of Learning. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 10(1), 171–176.
Kowitlawakul, Y.; Chow, Y.L.; Salam, Z.H.A. & Ignacio, J. (2015). Exploring the use of standardized patients for simulation-based learning in preparing advanced practice nurses. Nursing Education Today, 35(7), 894-899. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2015.03.004
Leung, J.Y.C., Critchley, L.A.H., Yung, A.L.K. & Kumta, S.M. (2015). Evidence of virtual patients as a facilitative learning tool on an anesthesia course. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20, 885-901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-014-9570-0
Lichvar, A.B., Hedges, A., Benedict, N. J., & Donihi, A.C. (2016). Combination of a flipped classroom format and a virtual patient case to enhance active learning in a required therapeutics course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(10), 1-10.
Lin, E.C.-L.; Chen, S.-L.; Chao, S.-Y. & Chen, Y-C. (2013). Using standardized patient with immediate feedback and group discussion to teach interpersonal and communication skills to advanced practice nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 33, 677-683.
Lockeman, K.S.; Appelbaum, N.P.; Dow, A.W.; Orr, S.; Huff, T.A., Hogan, C.J. & Queen, B.A. (2017). The effect of an interprofessional simulation-based program on perceptions and stereotypes of nursing and medical students: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse Education Today, 58, 32-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j-nedt.2017.07.013
Mawhirter, D.A. & Klainberg, M. (2014). Using technology to facilitate learning and foster critical thinking. Poster presented at the Drexel University Nursing Education Institute, Philadelphia, PA.
May, W.; Park, J.H. & Lee, J. P. (2009). A ten-year review of the literature on the use of standardized patients in teaching and learning: 1996–2005. Medical Teacher, 31(6), 487-492.
Miskovsky, M.J.; & Miller, W.F. (2014). Satisfaction with virtual patient simulation among graduate nursing distance education students. Presented at the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Master’s Education Conference. February 27-March 1, Scottsdale, AZ.
Nardi, D.A. & Gyurko, C. C. (2013). The Global Nursing Faculty Shortage: Status and Solutions for Change. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(3), 317-326.
Wahburn, M., Bordnick, P. & Rizzo, A. (2016). A pilot feasibility study of virtual patient simulation to enhance social work students’ brief mental health assessment skills. Social Work in Health Care, 55(9), 675-693. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00981389.2016.1210715
Warren, J.N.; Luctkar-Flude, M.; Godfrey, C. & Luckwich, J. (2016). A systematic review of the effectiveness of simulation-based education on satisfaction and learning outcomes in nurse practitioner programs. Nurse Education Today, 46, 99-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.08.023